Use of opioid analgesics in the treatment of cancer pain: Evidence-based recommendations from the EAPC

Augusto Caraceni, Geoffrey Hanks, Stein Kaasa, Michael I. Bennett, Cinzia Brunelli, Nathan Cherny, Ola Dale, Franco De Conno, Marie Fallon, Magdi Hanna, Dagny Faksvåg Haugen, Gitte Juhl, Samuel King, Pål Klepstad, Eivor A. Laugsand, Marco Maltoni, Sebastiano Mercadante, Maria Nabal, Alessandra Pigni, Lukas RadbruchColette Reid, Per Sjogren, Patrick C. Stone, Davide Tassinari, Giovambattista Zeppetella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Here we provide the updated version of the guidelines of the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) on the use of opioids for the treatment of cancer pain. The update was undertaken by the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative. Previous EAPC guidelines were reviewed and compared with other currently available guidelines, and consensus recommendations were created by formal international expert panel. The content of the guidelines was defined according to several topics, each of which was assigned to collaborators who developed systematic literature reviews with a common methodology. The recommendations were developed by a writing committee that combined the evidence derived from the systematic reviews with the panellists' evaluations in a co-authored process, and were endorsed by the EAPC Board of Directors. The guidelines are presented as a list of 16 evidence-based recommendations developed according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Lancet Oncology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology


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