Use of predictive markers to improve cardiovascular protection

Giuliano Tocci, Francesco Paneni, Beatrice Ponziani, Massimo Volpe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Together with other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension heavily contributes to the global burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as to the increase in individual absolute cardiovascular risk. Comparison of the effectiveness of different therapies in reducing the incidence of major cardiovascular events has classically required the evaluation of major 'hard' end points. In view of the long natural history of hypertension, however, it appears very useful to monitor modifications in measurable 'intermediate' end points or 'disease markers'. This approach may provide more accurate individual risk stratification and a better evaluation of the efficacy of a given treatment in preventing or modifying the course of target organ damage. This may represent a valuable and affordable strategy in clinical practice allowing the evaluation of both patient prognosis and the effectiveness of antihypertensive treatment over time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)447-456
Number of pages10
JournalFuture Cardiology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2007


  • Cardiovascular events
  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Hypertension
  • Target organ damage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Molecular Medicine


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