Usefulness of alpha-fetoprotein response in patients treated with sorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

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Abstract

Background & Aims: Tumor shrinkage has been considered a fundamental surrogate efficacy measure for new cancer treatments. However, in patients treated with sorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), tumor shrinkage rarely accompanies increased survival, thereby questioning the prognostic value of imaging-based Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). We investigated the prognostic usefulness of a decrease in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and compared it to RECIST. Methods: In HCC patients treated with sorafenib with baseline AFP >20 ng/ml, AFP response was defined as a >20% decrease in AFP during 8 weeks of treatment. Patients were also assessed by RECIST and were categorized as having radiologically proven progressive disease or disease control (consisting of complete or partial responses and stable disease). Comparisons of survival by RECIST and AFP response were corrected for guarantee-time bias by the landmark method. Results: We evaluated 85 patients for AFP response, among them, 82 were also evaluated by RECIST. In the analysis of AFP response, 32 out of 85 patients (37.6%) were responders, whereas 58 out of 82 patients (70.7%) achieved disease control. In landmark analysis, the hazard ratios (HR) for survival according to AFP response and disease control were 0.59 (p = 0.040) and 1.03 (p = 0.913), respectively. In multivariate analysis, only AFP response (HR = 0.52; p = 0.009) and Cancer of the Liver Italian Program dichotomized stage (HR = 0.42; p = 0.002) were prognostic factors of survival. Conclusions: Assessment of AFP response may be considered as an alternative to RECIST to capture sorafenib activity in HCC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-107
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Hepatology
Volume57
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012

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alpha-Fetoproteins
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Survival
sorafenib
Neoplasms
Liver Neoplasms
Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors
Multivariate Analysis

Keywords

  • AFP response
  • Alpha-fetoprotein
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Landmark analysis
  • RECIST
  • Sorafenib
  • Survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology

Cite this

@article{12bdfd286b344dff9e8404120eb2b24a,
title = "Usefulness of alpha-fetoprotein response in patients treated with sorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma",
abstract = "Background & Aims: Tumor shrinkage has been considered a fundamental surrogate efficacy measure for new cancer treatments. However, in patients treated with sorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), tumor shrinkage rarely accompanies increased survival, thereby questioning the prognostic value of imaging-based Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). We investigated the prognostic usefulness of a decrease in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and compared it to RECIST. Methods: In HCC patients treated with sorafenib with baseline AFP >20 ng/ml, AFP response was defined as a >20{\%} decrease in AFP during 8 weeks of treatment. Patients were also assessed by RECIST and were categorized as having radiologically proven progressive disease or disease control (consisting of complete or partial responses and stable disease). Comparisons of survival by RECIST and AFP response were corrected for guarantee-time bias by the landmark method. Results: We evaluated 85 patients for AFP response, among them, 82 were also evaluated by RECIST. In the analysis of AFP response, 32 out of 85 patients (37.6{\%}) were responders, whereas 58 out of 82 patients (70.7{\%}) achieved disease control. In landmark analysis, the hazard ratios (HR) for survival according to AFP response and disease control were 0.59 (p = 0.040) and 1.03 (p = 0.913), respectively. In multivariate analysis, only AFP response (HR = 0.52; p = 0.009) and Cancer of the Liver Italian Program dichotomized stage (HR = 0.42; p = 0.002) were prognostic factors of survival. Conclusions: Assessment of AFP response may be considered as an alternative to RECIST to capture sorafenib activity in HCC.",
keywords = "AFP response, Alpha-fetoprotein, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Landmark analysis, RECIST, Sorafenib, Survival",
author = "Nicola Personeni and Silvia Bozzarelli and Tiziana Pressiani and Lorenza Rimassa and Tronconi, {Maria Chiara} and Francesco Sclafani and Carlo Carnaghi and Vittorio Pedicini and Laura Giordano and Armando Santoro",
year = "2012",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1016/j.jhep.2012.02.016",
language = "English",
volume = "57",
pages = "101--107",
journal = "Journal of Hepatology",
issn = "0168-8278",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Usefulness of alpha-fetoprotein response in patients treated with sorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

AU - Personeni, Nicola

AU - Bozzarelli, Silvia

AU - Pressiani, Tiziana

AU - Rimassa, Lorenza

AU - Tronconi, Maria Chiara

AU - Sclafani, Francesco

AU - Carnaghi, Carlo

AU - Pedicini, Vittorio

AU - Giordano, Laura

AU - Santoro, Armando

PY - 2012/7

Y1 - 2012/7

N2 - Background & Aims: Tumor shrinkage has been considered a fundamental surrogate efficacy measure for new cancer treatments. However, in patients treated with sorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), tumor shrinkage rarely accompanies increased survival, thereby questioning the prognostic value of imaging-based Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). We investigated the prognostic usefulness of a decrease in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and compared it to RECIST. Methods: In HCC patients treated with sorafenib with baseline AFP >20 ng/ml, AFP response was defined as a >20% decrease in AFP during 8 weeks of treatment. Patients were also assessed by RECIST and were categorized as having radiologically proven progressive disease or disease control (consisting of complete or partial responses and stable disease). Comparisons of survival by RECIST and AFP response were corrected for guarantee-time bias by the landmark method. Results: We evaluated 85 patients for AFP response, among them, 82 were also evaluated by RECIST. In the analysis of AFP response, 32 out of 85 patients (37.6%) were responders, whereas 58 out of 82 patients (70.7%) achieved disease control. In landmark analysis, the hazard ratios (HR) for survival according to AFP response and disease control were 0.59 (p = 0.040) and 1.03 (p = 0.913), respectively. In multivariate analysis, only AFP response (HR = 0.52; p = 0.009) and Cancer of the Liver Italian Program dichotomized stage (HR = 0.42; p = 0.002) were prognostic factors of survival. Conclusions: Assessment of AFP response may be considered as an alternative to RECIST to capture sorafenib activity in HCC.

AB - Background & Aims: Tumor shrinkage has been considered a fundamental surrogate efficacy measure for new cancer treatments. However, in patients treated with sorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), tumor shrinkage rarely accompanies increased survival, thereby questioning the prognostic value of imaging-based Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). We investigated the prognostic usefulness of a decrease in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and compared it to RECIST. Methods: In HCC patients treated with sorafenib with baseline AFP >20 ng/ml, AFP response was defined as a >20% decrease in AFP during 8 weeks of treatment. Patients were also assessed by RECIST and were categorized as having radiologically proven progressive disease or disease control (consisting of complete or partial responses and stable disease). Comparisons of survival by RECIST and AFP response were corrected for guarantee-time bias by the landmark method. Results: We evaluated 85 patients for AFP response, among them, 82 were also evaluated by RECIST. In the analysis of AFP response, 32 out of 85 patients (37.6%) were responders, whereas 58 out of 82 patients (70.7%) achieved disease control. In landmark analysis, the hazard ratios (HR) for survival according to AFP response and disease control were 0.59 (p = 0.040) and 1.03 (p = 0.913), respectively. In multivariate analysis, only AFP response (HR = 0.52; p = 0.009) and Cancer of the Liver Italian Program dichotomized stage (HR = 0.42; p = 0.002) were prognostic factors of survival. Conclusions: Assessment of AFP response may be considered as an alternative to RECIST to capture sorafenib activity in HCC.

KW - AFP response

KW - Alpha-fetoprotein

KW - Hepatocellular carcinoma

KW - Landmark analysis

KW - RECIST

KW - Sorafenib

KW - Survival

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U2 - 10.1016/j.jhep.2012.02.016

DO - 10.1016/j.jhep.2012.02.016

M3 - Article

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