Vaccination strategy and anti - SARS-CoV-2 S titers in healthcare workers of the INT – IRCCS “Fondazione Pascale” Cancer Center (Naples, Italy)

Ernesta Cavalcanti, Maria Antonietta Isgrò, Domenica Rea, Lucia Di Capua, Giusy Trillò, Luigi Russo, Gerardo Botti, Leonardo Miscio, Franco Maria Buonaguro, Attilio Antonio Montano Bianchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the resulting disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have spread to millions of people globally, requiring the development of billions of different vaccine doses. The SARS-CoV-2 spike mRNA vaccine (named BNT162b2/Pfizer), authorized by the FDA, has shown high efficacy in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection after administration of two doses in individuals 16 years of age and older. In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated the differences in the SARS-CoV-2 humoral immune response after vaccine administration in the two different cohorts of workers at the INT - IRCCS “Fondazione Pascale” Cancer Center (Naples, Italy): previously infected to SARS-CoV-2 subjects and not infected to SARS-CoV-2 subjects. Methods: We determined specific anti-RBD (receptor-binding domain) titers against trimeric spike glycoprotein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 by Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S immunoassay in serum samples of 35 healthcare workers with a previous documented history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 158 healthcare workers without, after 1 and 2 doses of vaccine, respectively. Moreover, geometric mean titers and relative fold changes (FC) were calculated. Results: Both previously infected and not infected to SARS-CoV-2 subjects developed significant immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 after the administration of 1 and 2 doses of vaccine, respectively. Anti-S antibody responses to the first dose of vaccine were significantly higher in previously SARS-CoV-2-infected subjects in comparison to titers of not infected subjects after the first as well as the second dose of vaccine. Fold changes for subjects previously infected to SARS-CoV-2 was very modest, given the high basal antibody titer, as well as the upper limit of 2500.0 BAU/mL imposed by the Roche methods. Conversely, for naïve subjects, mean fold change following the first dose was low (x¯ =1.6), reaching 3.8 FC in 72 subjects (45.6%) following the second dose. Conclusions: The results showed that, as early as the first dose, SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals developed a remarkable and statistically significant immune response in comparison to those who did not contract the virus previously, suggesting the possibility of administering only one dose in previously SARS-CoV-2-infected subjects. FC for previously infected subjects should not be taken into account for the generally high pre-vaccination values. Conversely, FC for not infected subjects, after the second dose, were = 3.8 in > 45.0% of vaccinees, and ≤ 3.1 in 19.0%, the latter showing a potential susceptibility to further SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number32
JournalInfectious Agents and Cancer
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination
  • Anti-spike serology
  • Antibody response
  • Beads-based linear serology
  • Cancer institute
  • Post-COVID-19 single dose vaccine
  • SARS-CoV-2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research
  • Infectious Diseases

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