The discovery of immunoregulatory cytokines and the fact that they modulate the cellular and humoral arms of the immune system, generally in opposing directions raises fundamental questions concerning vaccine development. Because antibiotic resistant infectious organisms are appearing at an increasingly rapid rate, more emphasis will need to be placed on prevention of infection/disease via immunization and less on post-infection antibiotics. To accomplish this task effectively, immune regulation should be integrated into vaccine design. Here we consider the opposing potentials of cytokine-regulated cellular and humoral immunity, and question whether the 'best of both worlds' is possible or desirable.
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