Validation of an electronic version of the Self-Awareness Questionnaire in English and Italian healthy samples

Laura Hughes, Sophie Betka, Mariachiara Longarzo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Interoception is a general sensitivity to bodily sensations that informs motivational processes and behaviours. Interoceptive abilities seem to be impaired in several clinical conditions, and the development of new pragmatic instruments to assess subjective components of interoception are crucially needed. An easy to use paper and pencil questionnaire measuring sensitivity to bodily sensations was validated in an Italian sample (Self-Awareness Questionnaire; SAQ). Methods: In the present study, we created and evaluated an electronic version of the SAQ in Italian and English language. Results: Psychometric properties of both electronic versions of the SAQ were validated in an Italian (n = 206) and an English (n = 275) sample, using factorial analyses. Differences in factorial structures observed between the two samples were discussed in terms of cultural impact on emotional regulation and bodily sensations processing. Conclusions: The electronic version of SAQ in English and Italian provides a pragmatic and validated tool to evaluate bodily signal sensitivity in clinical settings, informing the development of a new therapy targeting interoceptive processes, in a wide range of psychopathological conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1758
JournalInternational Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018


  • awareness
  • electronic version
  • English population
  • interoception
  • Italian population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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