Validation of the COURAGE built environment self-reported questionnaire

Alberto Raggi, Rui Quintas, Paola Bucciarelli, Maria Grazia Franco, Alessandra Andreotti, Marta Miret, Katarzyna Zawisza, Beatriz Olaya, Somnath Chatterji, Päivi Sainio, Giovanni Battista Frisoni, Andrea Martinuzzi, Nadia Minicuci, Mick Power, Matilde Leonardi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The built environment (BE) impacts on people's disability and health, in terms of overweight, depression, alcohol abuse, poor self-rated health and presence of psychological symptoms; it is reasonable to assume that BE also impacts on participation levels. This paper presents the validation of the COURAGE Built Environment Self-Reported Questionnaire (CBE-SR), an instrument designed to evaluate BE in the context of health and disability.Subjects participating to COURAGE, a cross-sectional study conducted on 10800 citizens of Poland, Finland and Spain, completed a protocol inclusive of the CBE-SR. Psychometric properties and factor structure were analysed, and factor scores created. Gender differences, differences between persons from different age groups and persons reporting the environment as facilitating, hindering or neutral were calculated.Eight items were deleted so that the final version of CBE-SR comprises 19 items. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.743 to 0.906, and test-retest stability was demonstrated for the majority of items. Four subscales were identified: Usability of the neighbourhood environment; Hindrance of walkable environment; Easiness of use of public buildings, places and facilities; and Risk of accidents and usability of the living place. Younger respondents reported their neighbourhood as more usable but perceived walkways as more hindering and public buildings as less easy to use; gender differences were almost inexistent.The CBE-SR is a four-scale instrument with good psychometric properties that measures the person-environment interaction. It is sensitive across age groups and is consistent with the subject's overall judgement of the degree to which the environment is facilitating or hindering.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-226
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Psychology and Psychotherapy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014



  • Aged
  • Built Environment
  • Factor Analysis
  • Outcome Assessment
  • Validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Raggi, A., Quintas, R., Bucciarelli, P., Franco, M. G., Andreotti, A., Miret, M., Zawisza, K., Olaya, B., Chatterji, S., Sainio, P., Frisoni, G. B., Martinuzzi, A., Minicuci, N., Power, M., & Leonardi, M. (2014). Validation of the COURAGE built environment self-reported questionnaire. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 21(3), 215-226.