Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of the peroneal nerve test (PENT) in the diagnosis of critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and myopathy (CIM) in the intensive care unit (ICU). We hypothesised that abnormal reduction of peroneal compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude predicts CIP/CIM diagnosed using a complete nerve conduction study and electromyography (NCS-EMG) as a reference diagnostic standard. Design: prospective observational study. Setting: Nine Italian ICUs. Patients: One-hundred and twenty-one adult (≥18 years) neurologic (106) and non-neurologic (15) critically ill patients with an ICU stay of at least 3 days. Interventions: None. Measurements and main results: Patients underwent PENT and NCS-EMG testing on the same day conducted by two independent clinicians who were blind to the results of the other test. Cases were considered as true negative if both NCS-EMG and PENT measurements were normal. Cases were considered as true positive if the PENT result was abnormal and NCS-EMG showed symmetric abnormal findings, independently from the specific diagnosis by NCS-EMG (CIP, CIM, or combined CIP and CIM). All data were centrally reviewed and diagnoses were evaluated for consistency with predefined electrophysiological diagnostic criteria for CIP/CIM. During the study period, 342 patients were evaluated, 124 (36.3%) were enrolled and 121 individuals with no protocol violation were studied. Sensitivity and specificity of PENT were 100% (95% CI 96.1-100.0) and 85.2% (95% CI 66.3-95.8). Of 23 patients with normal results, all presented normal values on both tests with no false negative results. Of 97 patients with abnormal results, 93 had abnormal values on both tests (true positive), whereas four with abnormal findings with PENT had only single peroneal nerve neuropathy at complete NCS-EMG (false positive). Conclusions: PENT has 100% sensitivity and high specificity, and can be used as a screening test to diagnose CIP/CIM in the ICU.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)