Validation of the proposed specifiers for conduct disorder (PSCD) scale in a sample of italian students

Pietro Muratori, Carlo Buonanno, Anna Gallani, Giuseppe Grossi, Valentina Levantini, Annarita Milone, Simone Pisano, Randall T. Salekin, Gianluca Sesso, Gabriele Masi, Annalaura Nocentini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study aimed to further validate the self-reported version of the Proposed Specifiers Conduct Disorder (PSCD) scale, testing the associations between the PSCD with a scale that measures emotional/behavioral difficulties and prosocial behaviors (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ). A total of 536 Italian students (47.76% male; 11–14 years) completed the PSCD, while their caregivers and teachers completed the SDQ. A series of confirmatory factor analyses to test the best fitting model were run. The internal consistency of the PSCD was evaluated, and the correlations between the PSCD self-reported scores and SDQ Parent and Teacher report scores were examined. A bi-factor model was fitted with a refined 19-item version of the scale, which showed adequate fit indices. The PSCD total score was strongly associated with higher parent-and teacher-rated conduct problems, hyperactivity, and lower prosocial behavioral symptoms. In conclusion, this study indicated that the self-report PSCD shows preliminary promise as a reliable, easy-to-use tool, for measuring psychopathic traits in Italian children and young adolescents.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1020
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • Callous-unemotional
  • Conduct problems
  • Daring-impulsive
  • Early adolescent
  • Grandiose-manipulative
  • Hyperactivity
  • Psychopathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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