Validity of the international consultation on incontinence questionnaire-pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms: A screening questionnaire for children

Mario De Gennaro, Mauro Niero, Maria Luisa Capitanucci, Alexander Von Gontard, Mark Woodward, Andrea Tubaro, Paul Abrams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Lower urinary tract symptoms are common in pediatric patients. To our knowledge no validated instruments properly designed to screen lower urinary tract symptoms in the pediatric population have been published to date. In the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Committee the psychometric properties of a screening questionnaire for pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed. Materials and Methods: The 12-item International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms was developed in child and parent self-administered versions, and produced in English, Italian and German using a standard cross-cultural adaptation process. The questionnaire was self-administered to children 5 to 18 years old and their parents presenting for lower urinary tract symptoms (cases) or to pediatric/urological clinics for other reasons (controls). A case report form included history, urinalysis, bladder diary, flowmetry/post-void residual urine volume and clinician judgment on whether each child did or did not have lower urinary tract symptoms. Questionnaire psychometric properties were evaluated and data were stratified into 3 age groups, including 5 to 9, 10 to 13 and 14 to 18 years. Results: A total of 345 questionnaires were completed, of which 147 were negative and 198 were positive for lower urinary tract symptoms. A mean of 1.67% and 2.10% of items were missing in the child and parent versions, respectively. Reliability (Cronbach's α) was unacceptable in only the 5 to 9-year-old group. The high ICC of 0.847 suggested fair child/parent equivalence. Sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 76% in the child version, and 91% and 73.5% in the parent version, respectively. Conclusions: The questionnaire is an acceptable, reliable tool with high sensitivity and specificity to screen for lower urinary tract symptoms in pediatric practice. Problems related to literacy suggest use of the child versions for patients older than 9 years. In research this questionnaire could be used to recalibrate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1662-1667
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number4 SUPPL.
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2010


  • child
  • parents
  • questionnaires
  • urinary tract
  • urination disorders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology
  • Medicine(all)


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