Variation in structure and process of care in traumatic brain injury: Provider profiles of European Neurotrauma Centers participating in the CENTER-TBI study

Maryse Cnossen, Suzanne Polinder, Hester F. Lingsma, Andrew Maas, David K. Menon, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Hadie Adams, Masala Alessandro, Judith E. Allanson, Krisztina Amrein, Norberto Andaluz, Nada Andelic, Nanni Andrea, Lasse Andreassen, Audny Anke, Anna Antoni, Hilko Ardon, Gérard Audibert, Kaspars Auslands, Philippe AzouviCamelia Baciu, Andrew Bacon, Rafael Badenes, Trevor Baglin, Ronald Bartels, Pál Barzó, Ursula Bauerfeind, Ronny Beer, Francisco Javier Belda, Bo Michael Bellander, Antonio Belli, Rémy Bellier, Habib Benali, Thierry Benard, Maurizio Berardino, Luigi Beretta, Christopher Beynon, Federico Bilotta, Harald Binder, Erta Biqiri, Morten Blaabjerg, Lund Stine Borgen, Pierre Bouzat, Peter Bragge, Alexandra Bražinová, Felix Brehar, Camilla Brorsson, Andras Buki, Monika Bullinger, Veronika Bučková, E. Calappi, Peter Cameron, Lozano Guillermo Carbayo, Elsa Carise, C. Carpenter, Ana M. Castaño-León, F. Causin, G. Chevallard, Arturo Chieregato, Guiseppe Citerio, Mark Coburn, Jonathan P. Coles, Jamie D. Cooper, Marta Correia, Amra Covic, Nicola Curry, Endre Czeiter, Marek Czosnyka, Claire Dahyot-Fizelier, François Damas, Pierre Damas, Helen Dawes, Véronique De Keyser, Francesco Della Corte, Bart Depreitere, Shenghao Ding, Diederik W J Dippel, Kemal Dizdarevic, Guy Loup Dulière, Adelaida Dzeko, George Eapen, Heiko Engemann, Ari Ercole, Patrick Esser, Erzsébet Ezer, Martin Fabricius, Valery L. Feigin, Junfeng Feng, Kelly Foks, Francesca Fossi, Gilles Francony, Janek Frantzén, Ulderico Freo, Shirin Kordasti Frisvold, Alex Furmanov, Pablo Gagliardo, Damien Galanaud, Guoyi Gao, Karin Geleijns, Alexandre Ghuysen, Benoit Giraud, Ben Glocker, Pedro A. Gomez, Francesca Grossi, Russel Gruen, Deepak Gupta, Juanita A. Haagsma, Ermin Hadzic, Ian Haitsma, Jed A. Hartings, Raimund Helbok, Eirik Helseth, Daniel Hertle, Sean Hill, Astrid Hoedemaekers, Stefan Hoefer, Peter J. Hutchinson, Asta Kristine Håberg, Bram Jacobs, Ivan Janciak, Koen Janssens, Ji Yao Jiang, Kelly Jones, Jean Pierre Kalala, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Mladen Karan, Jana Karau, Ari Katila, Maija Kaukonen, D. Keeling, Thomas Kerforne, Naomi Ketharanathan, Johannes Kettunen, Riku Kivisaari, Angelos G. Kolias, Bálint Kolumbán, E. J O Kompanje, Daniel Kondziella, Lars Owe Koskinen, Noémi Kovács, Ferenc Kalovits, Alfonso Lagares, Linda Lanyon, Steven Laureys, Martin Lauritzen, Fiona Lecky, Christian Ledig, Rolf Lefering, Valerie Legrand, Jin Lei, Leon Levi, Roger Lightfoot, Hester F. Lingsma, Dirk Loeckx, Angels Lozano, Roger Luddington, Chantal Luijten-Arts, Andrew I. Maas, Stephen MacDonald, Charles MacFayden, Marc Maegele, Marek Majdan, Sebastian Major, Alex Manara, Pauline Manhes, Geoffrey T. Manley, Didier Martin, Costanza Martino, Armando Maruenda, Hugues Maréchal, Dagmara Mastelova, Julia Mattern, Catherine McMahon, Béla Melegh, Tomas Menovsky, Cristina Morganti-Kossmann, Davide Mulazzi, Manuel Mutschler, Holger Mühlan, Ancuta Negru, David Nelson, Eddy Neugebauer, Virginia F. Newcombe, Quentin Noirhomme, József Nyirádi, Mauro Oddo, Annemarie Oldenbeuving, Matej Oresic, Fabrizio Ortolano, Aarno Palotie, Paul Parizel, Adriana Patruno, Jean François Payen, Natascha Perera, Vincent Perlbarg, Paolo Persona, Wilco Peul, Nicolas Pichon, Henning Piilgaard, Anna Piippo, Floury Sébastien Pili, Matti Pirinen, Horia Ples, Inigo Pomposo, Marek Psota, Pim Pullens, Louis Puybasset, Arminas Ragauskas, Rahul Raj, Malinka Rambadagalla, Veronika Rehorčíková, Jonathan K J Rhodes, Sylvia Richardson, Samuli Ripatti, Saulius Rocka, Nicolas Rodier, Cecilie Roe, Olav Roise, Gerwin Roks, Pauline Romegoux, Jonathan Rosand, Jeffrey Rosenfeld, Christina Rosenlund, Guy Rosenthal, Rolf Rossaint, Sandra Rossi, Tim Rostalski, Danie L. Rueckert, Felix Ruiz De Arcaute, Martin Rusnák, Marco Sacchi, Barbara Sahakian, Juan Sahuquillo, Oliver Sakowitz, Francesca Sala, Paola Sanchez-Pena, Renan Sanchez-Porras, Janos Sandor, Edgar Santos, Nadine Sasse, Luminita Sasu, Davide Savo, Inger Schipper, Barbara Schlößer, Silke Schmidt, Annette Schneider, Herbert Schoechl, G. G. Schoonman, Rico Schou, Elisabeth Schwendenwein, Michael Schöll, Özcan Sir, Toril Skandsen, Lidwien Smakman, Dirk Smeets, Peter Smielewski, Abayomi Sorinola, Emmanue L. Stamatakis, Simon Stanworth, Katrin Stegemann, Nicole Steinbüchel, Robert Stevens, William Stewart, Nino Stocchetti, Nina Sundström, Anneliese J. Synnot, József Szabó, Jeannette Söderberg, F. S. Taccone, Viktória Tamás, Päivi Tanskanen, Alexandru Tascu, Mark Steven Taylor, Braden Te Ao, Olli Tenovuo, Guido Teodorani, Alice Theadom, Matt Thomas, Dick Tibboel, Christos M. Tolias, Jean Flory Luaba Tshibanda, Cristina Maria Tudora, Peter Vajkoczy, Egils Valeinis, Wim Van Hecke, Dominique Van Praag, Dirk Van Roost, Eline Van Vlierberghe, Thijs Vande Vyvere, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Alessia Vargiolu, Emmanuel Vega, Jan Verheyden, Paul M. Vespa, Anne Vik, Rimantas Vilcinis, Giacinta Vizzino, Carmen Vleggeert-Lankamp, Victor Volovici, Peter Vulekovic, Zoltán Vámos, Derick Wade, Kevin K W Wang, Lei Wang, Eno Wildschut, Guy Williams, Lisette Willumsen, Adam Wilson, Lindsay Wilson, Maren K L Winkler, Peter Ylén, Alexander Younsi, Menashe Zaaroor, Zhiqun Zhang, Zelong Zheng, Fabrizio Zumbo, Stefanie De Lange, Godard C W De Ruiter, Hugo Den Boogert, Jeroen Van Dijck, Thomas Van Essen, C. M. Van Heugten, Mathieu Van Der Jagt, Joukje Van Der Naalt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: The strength of evidence underpinning care and treatment recommendations in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is low. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has been proposed as a framework to provide evidence for optimal care for TBI patients. The first step in CER is to map the existing variation. The aim of current study is to quantify variation in general structural and process characteristics among centers participating in the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study. Methods: We designed a set of 11 provider profiling questionnaires with 321 questions about various aspects of TBI care, chosen based on literature and expert opinion. After pilot testing, questionnaires were disseminated to 71 centers from 20 countries participating in the CENTER-TBI study. Reliability of questionnaires was estimated by calculating a concordance rate among 5% duplicate questions. Results: All 71 centers completed the questionnaires. Median concordance rate among duplicate questions was 0.85. The majority of centers were academic hospitals (n = 65, 92%), designated as a level I trauma center (n = 48, 68%) and situated in an urban location (n = 70, 99%). The availability of facilities for neuro-trauma care varied across centers; e.g. 40 (57%) had a dedicated neuro-intensive care unit (ICU), 36 (51%) had an in-hospital rehabilitation unit and the organization of the ICU was closed in 64% (n = 45) of the centers. In addition, we found wide variation in processes of care, such as the ICU admission policy and intracranial pressure monitoring policy among centers. Conclusion: Even among high-volume, specialized neurotrauma centers there is substantial variation in structures and processes of TBI care. This variation provides an opportunity to study effectiveness of specific aspects of TBI care and to identify best practices with CER approaches.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0161367
JournalPLoS One
Volume11
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2016

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Brain
brain
Comparative Effectiveness Research
Intensive care units
Research
questionnaires
Intensive Care Units
Hospital Units
rehabilitation (people)
Trauma Centers
expert opinion
Intracranial Pressure
Expert Testimony
Traumatic Brain Injury
Practice Guidelines
Patient rehabilitation
Rehabilitation
Availability
Organizations
Surveys and Questionnaires

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Variation in structure and process of care in traumatic brain injury : Provider profiles of European Neurotrauma Centers participating in the CENTER-TBI study. / Cnossen, Maryse; Polinder, Suzanne; Lingsma, Hester F.; Maas, Andrew; Menon, David K.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Adams, Hadie; Alessandro, Masala; Allanson, Judith E.; Amrein, Krisztina; Andaluz, Norberto; Andelic, Nada; Andrea, Nanni; Andreassen, Lasse; Anke, Audny; Antoni, Anna; Ardon, Hilko; Audibert, Gérard; Auslands, Kaspars; Azouvi, Philippe; Baciu, Camelia; Bacon, Andrew; Badenes, Rafael; Baglin, Trevor; Bartels, Ronald; Barzó, Pál; Bauerfeind, Ursula; Beer, Ronny; Belda, Francisco Javier; Bellander, Bo Michael; Belli, Antonio; Bellier, Rémy; Benali, Habib; Benard, Thierry; Berardino, Maurizio; Beretta, Luigi; Beynon, Christopher; Bilotta, Federico; Binder, Harald; Biqiri, Erta; Blaabjerg, Morten; Borgen, Lund Stine; Bouzat, Pierre; Bragge, Peter; Bražinová, Alexandra; Brehar, Felix; Brorsson, Camilla; Buki, Andras; Bullinger, Monika; Bučková, Veronika; Calappi, E.; Cameron, Peter; Carbayo, Lozano Guillermo; Carise, Elsa; Carpenter, C.; Castaño-León, Ana M.; Causin, F.; Chevallard, G.; Chieregato, Arturo; Citerio, Guiseppe; Coburn, Mark; Coles, Jonathan P.; Cooper, Jamie D.; Correia, Marta; Covic, Amra; Curry, Nicola; Czeiter, Endre; Czosnyka, Marek; Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire; Damas, François; Damas, Pierre; Dawes, Helen; De Keyser, Véronique; Della Corte, Francesco; Depreitere, Bart; Ding, Shenghao; Dippel, Diederik W J; Dizdarevic, Kemal; Dulière, Guy Loup; Dzeko, Adelaida; Eapen, George; Engemann, Heiko; Ercole, Ari; Esser, Patrick; Ezer, Erzsébet; Fabricius, Martin; Feigin, Valery L.; Feng, Junfeng; Foks, Kelly; Fossi, Francesca; Francony, Gilles; Frantzén, Janek; Freo, Ulderico; Frisvold, Shirin Kordasti; Furmanov, Alex; Gagliardo, Pablo; Galanaud, Damien; Gao, Guoyi; Geleijns, Karin; Ghuysen, Alexandre; Giraud, Benoit; Glocker, Ben; Gomez, Pedro A.; Grossi, Francesca; Gruen, Russel; Gupta, Deepak; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hadzic, Ermin; Haitsma, Ian; Hartings, Jed A.; Helbok, Raimund; Helseth, Eirik; Hertle, Daniel; Hill, Sean; Hoedemaekers, Astrid; Hoefer, Stefan; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Håberg, Asta Kristine; Jacobs, Bram; Janciak, Ivan; Janssens, Koen; Jiang, Ji Yao; Jones, Kelly; Kalala, Jean Pierre; Kamnitsas, Konstantinos; Karan, Mladen; Karau, Jana; Katila, Ari; Kaukonen, Maija; Keeling, D.; Kerforne, Thomas; Ketharanathan, Naomi; Kettunen, Johannes; Kivisaari, Riku; Kolias, Angelos G.; Kolumbán, Bálint; Kompanje, E. J O; Kondziella, Daniel; Koskinen, Lars Owe; Kovács, Noémi; Kalovits, Ferenc; Lagares, Alfonso; Lanyon, Linda; Laureys, Steven; Lauritzen, Martin; Lecky, Fiona; Ledig, Christian; Lefering, Rolf; Legrand, Valerie; Lei, Jin; Levi, Leon; Lightfoot, Roger; Lingsma, Hester F.; Loeckx, Dirk; Lozano, Angels; Luddington, Roger; Luijten-Arts, Chantal; Maas, Andrew I.; MacDonald, Stephen; MacFayden, Charles; Maegele, Marc; Majdan, Marek; Major, Sebastian; Manara, Alex; Manhes, Pauline; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Martin, Didier; Martino, Costanza; Maruenda, Armando; Maréchal, Hugues; Mastelova, Dagmara; Mattern, Julia; McMahon, Catherine; Melegh, Béla; Menovsky, Tomas; Morganti-Kossmann, Cristina; Mulazzi, Davide; Mutschler, Manuel; Mühlan, Holger; Negru, Ancuta; Nelson, David; Neugebauer, Eddy; Newcombe, Virginia F.; Noirhomme, Quentin; Nyirádi, József; Oddo, Mauro; Oldenbeuving, Annemarie; Oresic, Matej; Ortolano, Fabrizio; Palotie, Aarno; Parizel, Paul; Patruno, Adriana; Payen, Jean François; Perera, Natascha; Perlbarg, Vincent; Persona, Paolo; Peul, Wilco; Pichon, Nicolas; Piilgaard, Henning; Piippo, Anna; Pili, Floury Sébastien; Pirinen, Matti; Ples, Horia; Pomposo, Inigo; Psota, Marek; Pullens, Pim; Puybasset, Louis; Ragauskas, Arminas; Raj, Rahul; Rambadagalla, Malinka; Rehorčíková, Veronika; Rhodes, Jonathan K J; Richardson, Sylvia; Ripatti, Samuli; Rocka, Saulius; Rodier, Nicolas; Roe, Cecilie; Roise, Olav; Roks, Gerwin; Romegoux, Pauline; Rosand, Jonathan; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Rosenlund, Christina; Rosenthal, Guy; Rossaint, Rolf; Rossi, Sandra; Rostalski, Tim; Rueckert, Danie L.; Ruiz De Arcaute, Felix; Rusnák, Martin; Sacchi, Marco; Sahakian, Barbara; Sahuquillo, Juan; Sakowitz, Oliver; Sala, Francesca; Sanchez-Pena, Paola; Sanchez-Porras, Renan; Sandor, Janos; Santos, Edgar; Sasse, Nadine; Sasu, Luminita; Savo, Davide; Schipper, Inger; Schlößer, Barbara; Schmidt, Silke; Schneider, Annette; Schoechl, Herbert; Schoonman, G. G.; Schou, Rico; Schwendenwein, Elisabeth; Schöll, Michael; Sir, Özcan; Skandsen, Toril; Smakman, Lidwien; Smeets, Dirk; Smielewski, Peter; Sorinola, Abayomi; Stamatakis, Emmanue L.; Stanworth, Simon; Stegemann, Katrin; Steinbüchel, Nicole; Stevens, Robert; Stewart, William; Stocchetti, Nino; Sundström, Nina; Synnot, Anneliese J.; Szabó, József; Söderberg, Jeannette; Taccone, F. S.; Tamás, Viktória; Tanskanen, Päivi; Tascu, Alexandru; Taylor, Mark Steven; Te Ao, Braden; Tenovuo, Olli; Teodorani, Guido; Theadom, Alice; Thomas, Matt; Tibboel, Dick; Tolias, Christos M.; Tshibanda, Jean Flory Luaba; Tudora, Cristina Maria; Vajkoczy, Peter; Valeinis, Egils; Van Hecke, Wim; Van Praag, Dominique; Van Roost, Dirk; Van Vlierberghe, Eline; Vande Vyvere, Thijs; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Vargiolu, Alessia; Vega, Emmanuel; Verheyden, Jan; Vespa, Paul M.; Vik, Anne; Vilcinis, Rimantas; Vizzino, Giacinta; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen; Volovici, Victor; Vulekovic, Peter; Vámos, Zoltán; Wade, Derick; Wang, Kevin K W; Wang, Lei; Wildschut, Eno; Williams, Guy; Willumsen, Lisette; Wilson, Adam; Wilson, Lindsay; Winkler, Maren K L; Ylén, Peter; Younsi, Alexander; Zaaroor, Menashe; Zhang, Zhiqun; Zheng, Zelong; Zumbo, Fabrizio; De Lange, Stefanie; De Ruiter, Godard C W; Den Boogert, Hugo; Van Dijck, Jeroen; Van Essen, Thomas; Van Heugten, C. M.; Van Der Jagt, Mathieu; Van Der Naalt, Joukje.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 11, No. 8, e0161367, 01.08.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cnossen, M, Polinder, S, Lingsma, HF, Maas, A, Menon, DK, Steyerberg, EW, Adams, H, Alessandro, M, Allanson, JE, Amrein, K, Andaluz, N, Andelic, N, Andrea, N, Andreassen, L, Anke, A, Antoni, A, Ardon, H, Audibert, G, Auslands, K, Azouvi, P, Baciu, C, Bacon, A, Badenes, R, Baglin, T, Bartels, R, Barzó, P, Bauerfeind, U, Beer, R, Belda, FJ, Bellander, BM, Belli, A, Bellier, R, Benali, H, Benard, T, Berardino, M, Beretta, L, Beynon, C, Bilotta, F, Binder, H, Biqiri, E, Blaabjerg, M, Borgen, LS, Bouzat, P, Bragge, P, Bražinová, A, Brehar, F, Brorsson, C, Buki, A, Bullinger, M, Bučková, V, Calappi, E, Cameron, P, Carbayo, LG, Carise, E, Carpenter, C, Castaño-León, AM, Causin, F, Chevallard, G, Chieregato, A, Citerio, G, Coburn, M, Coles, JP, Cooper, JD, Correia, M, Covic, A, Curry, N, Czeiter, E, Czosnyka, M, Dahyot-Fizelier, C, Damas, F, Damas, P, Dawes, H, De Keyser, V, Della Corte, F, Depreitere, B, Ding, S, Dippel, DWJ, Dizdarevic, K, Dulière, GL, Dzeko, A, Eapen, G, Engemann, H, Ercole, A, Esser, P, Ezer, E, Fabricius, M, Feigin, VL, Feng, J, Foks, K, Fossi, F, Francony, G, Frantzén, J, Freo, U, Frisvold, SK, Furmanov, A, Gagliardo, P, Galanaud, D, Gao, G, Geleijns, K, Ghuysen, A, Giraud, B, Glocker, B, Gomez, PA, Grossi, F, Gruen, R, Gupta, D, Haagsma, JA, Hadzic, E, Haitsma, I, Hartings, JA, Helbok, R, Helseth, E, Hertle, D, Hill, S, Hoedemaekers, A, Hoefer, S, Hutchinson, PJ, Håberg, AK, Jacobs, B, Janciak, I, Janssens, K, Jiang, JY, Jones, K, Kalala, JP, Kamnitsas, K, Karan, M, Karau, J, Katila, A, Kaukonen, M, Keeling, D, Kerforne, T, Ketharanathan, N, Kettunen, J, Kivisaari, R, Kolias, AG, Kolumbán, B, Kompanje, EJO, Kondziella, D, Koskinen, LO, Kovács, N, Kalovits, F, Lagares, A, Lanyon, L, Laureys, S, Lauritzen, M, Lecky, F, Ledig, C, Lefering, R, Legrand, V, Lei, J, Levi, L, Lightfoot, R, Lingsma, HF, Loeckx, D, Lozano, A, Luddington, R, Luijten-Arts, C, Maas, AI, MacDonald, S, MacFayden, C, Maegele, M, Majdan, M, Major, S, Manara, A, Manhes, P, Manley, GT, Martin, D, Martino, C, Maruenda, A, Maréchal, H, Mastelova, D, Mattern, J, McMahon, C, Melegh, B, Menovsky, T, Morganti-Kossmann, C, Mulazzi, D, Mutschler, M, Mühlan, H, Negru, A, Nelson, D, Neugebauer, E, Newcombe, VF, Noirhomme, Q, Nyirádi, J, Oddo, M, Oldenbeuving, A, Oresic, M, Ortolano, F, Palotie, A, Parizel, P, Patruno, A, Payen, JF, Perera, N, Perlbarg, V, Persona, P, Peul, W, Pichon, N, Piilgaard, H, Piippo, A, Pili, FS, Pirinen, M, Ples, H, Pomposo, I, Psota, M, Pullens, P, Puybasset, L, Ragauskas, A, Raj, R, Rambadagalla, M, Rehorčíková, V, Rhodes, JKJ, Richardson, S, Ripatti, S, Rocka, S, Rodier, N, Roe, C, Roise, O, Roks, G, Romegoux, P, Rosand, J, Rosenfeld, J, Rosenlund, C, Rosenthal, G, Rossaint, R, Rossi, S, Rostalski, T, Rueckert, DL, Ruiz De Arcaute, F, Rusnák, M, Sacchi, M, Sahakian, B, Sahuquillo, J, Sakowitz, O, Sala, F, Sanchez-Pena, P, Sanchez-Porras, R, Sandor, J, Santos, E, Sasse, N, Sasu, L, Savo, D, Schipper, I, Schlößer, B, Schmidt, S, Schneider, A, Schoechl, H, Schoonman, GG, Schou, R, Schwendenwein, E, Schöll, M, Sir, Ö, Skandsen, T, Smakman, L, Smeets, D, Smielewski, P, Sorinola, A, Stamatakis, EL, Stanworth, S, Stegemann, K, Steinbüchel, N, Stevens, R, Stewart, W, Stocchetti, N, Sundström, N, Synnot, AJ, Szabó, J, Söderberg, J, Taccone, FS, Tamás, V, Tanskanen, P, Tascu, A, Taylor, MS, Te Ao, B, Tenovuo, O, Teodorani, G, Theadom, A, Thomas, M, Tibboel, D, Tolias, CM, Tshibanda, JFL, Tudora, CM, Vajkoczy, P, Valeinis, E, Van Hecke, W, Van Praag, D, Van Roost, D, Van Vlierberghe, E, Vande Vyvere, T, Vanhaudenhuyse, A, Vargiolu, A, Vega, E, Verheyden, J, Vespa, PM, Vik, A, Vilcinis, R, Vizzino, G, Vleggeert-Lankamp, C, Volovici, V, Vulekovic, P, Vámos, Z, Wade, D, Wang, KKW, Wang, L, Wildschut, E, Williams, G, Willumsen, L, Wilson, A, Wilson, L, Winkler, MKL, Ylén, P, Younsi, A, Zaaroor, M, Zhang, Z, Zheng, Z, Zumbo, F, De Lange, S, De Ruiter, GCW, Den Boogert, H, Van Dijck, J, Van Essen, T, Van Heugten, CM, Van Der Jagt, M & Van Der Naalt, J 2016, 'Variation in structure and process of care in traumatic brain injury: Provider profiles of European Neurotrauma Centers participating in the CENTER-TBI study', PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 8, e0161367. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161367
Cnossen, Maryse ; Polinder, Suzanne ; Lingsma, Hester F. ; Maas, Andrew ; Menon, David K. ; Steyerberg, Ewout W. ; Adams, Hadie ; Alessandro, Masala ; Allanson, Judith E. ; Amrein, Krisztina ; Andaluz, Norberto ; Andelic, Nada ; Andrea, Nanni ; Andreassen, Lasse ; Anke, Audny ; Antoni, Anna ; Ardon, Hilko ; Audibert, Gérard ; Auslands, Kaspars ; Azouvi, Philippe ; Baciu, Camelia ; Bacon, Andrew ; Badenes, Rafael ; Baglin, Trevor ; Bartels, Ronald ; Barzó, Pál ; Bauerfeind, Ursula ; Beer, Ronny ; Belda, Francisco Javier ; Bellander, Bo Michael ; Belli, Antonio ; Bellier, Rémy ; Benali, Habib ; Benard, Thierry ; Berardino, Maurizio ; Beretta, Luigi ; Beynon, Christopher ; Bilotta, Federico ; Binder, Harald ; Biqiri, Erta ; Blaabjerg, Morten ; Borgen, Lund Stine ; Bouzat, Pierre ; Bragge, Peter ; Bražinová, Alexandra ; Brehar, Felix ; Brorsson, Camilla ; Buki, Andras ; Bullinger, Monika ; Bučková, Veronika ; Calappi, E. ; Cameron, Peter ; Carbayo, Lozano Guillermo ; Carise, Elsa ; Carpenter, C. ; Castaño-León, Ana M. ; Causin, F. ; Chevallard, G. ; Chieregato, Arturo ; Citerio, Guiseppe ; Coburn, Mark ; Coles, Jonathan P. ; Cooper, Jamie D. ; Correia, Marta ; Covic, Amra ; Curry, Nicola ; Czeiter, Endre ; Czosnyka, Marek ; Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire ; Damas, François ; Damas, Pierre ; Dawes, Helen ; De Keyser, Véronique ; Della Corte, Francesco ; Depreitere, Bart ; Ding, Shenghao ; Dippel, Diederik W J ; Dizdarevic, Kemal ; Dulière, Guy Loup ; Dzeko, Adelaida ; Eapen, George ; Engemann, Heiko ; Ercole, Ari ; Esser, Patrick ; Ezer, Erzsébet ; Fabricius, Martin ; Feigin, Valery L. ; Feng, Junfeng ; Foks, Kelly ; Fossi, Francesca ; Francony, Gilles ; Frantzén, Janek ; Freo, Ulderico ; Frisvold, Shirin Kordasti ; Furmanov, Alex ; Gagliardo, Pablo ; Galanaud, Damien ; Gao, Guoyi ; Geleijns, Karin ; Ghuysen, Alexandre ; Giraud, Benoit ; Glocker, Ben ; Gomez, Pedro A. ; Grossi, Francesca ; Gruen, Russel ; Gupta, Deepak ; Haagsma, Juanita A. ; Hadzic, Ermin ; Haitsma, Ian ; Hartings, Jed A. ; Helbok, Raimund ; Helseth, Eirik ; Hertle, Daniel ; Hill, Sean ; Hoedemaekers, Astrid ; Hoefer, Stefan ; Hutchinson, Peter J. ; Håberg, Asta Kristine ; Jacobs, Bram ; Janciak, Ivan ; Janssens, Koen ; Jiang, Ji Yao ; Jones, Kelly ; Kalala, Jean Pierre ; Kamnitsas, Konstantinos ; Karan, Mladen ; Karau, Jana ; Katila, Ari ; Kaukonen, Maija ; Keeling, D. ; Kerforne, Thomas ; Ketharanathan, Naomi ; Kettunen, Johannes ; Kivisaari, Riku ; Kolias, Angelos G. ; Kolumbán, Bálint ; Kompanje, E. J O ; Kondziella, Daniel ; Koskinen, Lars Owe ; Kovács, Noémi ; Kalovits, Ferenc ; Lagares, Alfonso ; Lanyon, Linda ; Laureys, Steven ; Lauritzen, Martin ; Lecky, Fiona ; Ledig, Christian ; Lefering, Rolf ; Legrand, Valerie ; Lei, Jin ; Levi, Leon ; Lightfoot, Roger ; Lingsma, Hester F. ; Loeckx, Dirk ; Lozano, Angels ; Luddington, Roger ; Luijten-Arts, Chantal ; Maas, Andrew I. ; MacDonald, Stephen ; MacFayden, Charles ; Maegele, Marc ; Majdan, Marek ; Major, Sebastian ; Manara, Alex ; Manhes, Pauline ; Manley, Geoffrey T. ; Martin, Didier ; Martino, Costanza ; Maruenda, Armando ; Maréchal, Hugues ; Mastelova, Dagmara ; Mattern, Julia ; McMahon, Catherine ; Melegh, Béla ; Menovsky, Tomas ; Morganti-Kossmann, Cristina ; Mulazzi, Davide ; Mutschler, Manuel ; Mühlan, Holger ; Negru, Ancuta ; Nelson, David ; Neugebauer, Eddy ; Newcombe, Virginia F. ; Noirhomme, Quentin ; Nyirádi, József ; Oddo, Mauro ; Oldenbeuving, Annemarie ; Oresic, Matej ; Ortolano, Fabrizio ; Palotie, Aarno ; Parizel, Paul ; Patruno, Adriana ; Payen, Jean François ; Perera, Natascha ; Perlbarg, Vincent ; Persona, Paolo ; Peul, Wilco ; Pichon, Nicolas ; Piilgaard, Henning ; Piippo, Anna ; Pili, Floury Sébastien ; Pirinen, Matti ; Ples, Horia ; Pomposo, Inigo ; Psota, Marek ; Pullens, Pim ; Puybasset, Louis ; Ragauskas, Arminas ; Raj, Rahul ; Rambadagalla, Malinka ; Rehorčíková, Veronika ; Rhodes, Jonathan K J ; Richardson, Sylvia ; Ripatti, Samuli ; Rocka, Saulius ; Rodier, Nicolas ; Roe, Cecilie ; Roise, Olav ; Roks, Gerwin ; Romegoux, Pauline ; Rosand, Jonathan ; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey ; Rosenlund, Christina ; Rosenthal, Guy ; Rossaint, Rolf ; Rossi, Sandra ; Rostalski, Tim ; Rueckert, Danie L. ; Ruiz De Arcaute, Felix ; Rusnák, Martin ; Sacchi, Marco ; Sahakian, Barbara ; Sahuquillo, Juan ; Sakowitz, Oliver ; Sala, Francesca ; Sanchez-Pena, Paola ; Sanchez-Porras, Renan ; Sandor, Janos ; Santos, Edgar ; Sasse, Nadine ; Sasu, Luminita ; Savo, Davide ; Schipper, Inger ; Schlößer, Barbara ; Schmidt, Silke ; Schneider, Annette ; Schoechl, Herbert ; Schoonman, G. G. ; Schou, Rico ; Schwendenwein, Elisabeth ; Schöll, Michael ; Sir, Özcan ; Skandsen, Toril ; Smakman, Lidwien ; Smeets, Dirk ; Smielewski, Peter ; Sorinola, Abayomi ; Stamatakis, Emmanue L. ; Stanworth, Simon ; Stegemann, Katrin ; Steinbüchel, Nicole ; Stevens, Robert ; Stewart, William ; Stocchetti, Nino ; Sundström, Nina ; Synnot, Anneliese J. ; Szabó, József ; Söderberg, Jeannette ; Taccone, F. S. ; Tamás, Viktória ; Tanskanen, Päivi ; Tascu, Alexandru ; Taylor, Mark Steven ; Te Ao, Braden ; Tenovuo, Olli ; Teodorani, Guido ; Theadom, Alice ; Thomas, Matt ; Tibboel, Dick ; Tolias, Christos M. ; Tshibanda, Jean Flory Luaba ; Tudora, Cristina Maria ; Vajkoczy, Peter ; Valeinis, Egils ; Van Hecke, Wim ; Van Praag, Dominique ; Van Roost, Dirk ; Van Vlierberghe, Eline ; Vande Vyvere, Thijs ; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ; Vargiolu, Alessia ; Vega, Emmanuel ; Verheyden, Jan ; Vespa, Paul M. ; Vik, Anne ; Vilcinis, Rimantas ; Vizzino, Giacinta ; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen ; Volovici, Victor ; Vulekovic, Peter ; Vámos, Zoltán ; Wade, Derick ; Wang, Kevin K W ; Wang, Lei ; Wildschut, Eno ; Williams, Guy ; Willumsen, Lisette ; Wilson, Adam ; Wilson, Lindsay ; Winkler, Maren K L ; Ylén, Peter ; Younsi, Alexander ; Zaaroor, Menashe ; Zhang, Zhiqun ; Zheng, Zelong ; Zumbo, Fabrizio ; De Lange, Stefanie ; De Ruiter, Godard C W ; Den Boogert, Hugo ; Van Dijck, Jeroen ; Van Essen, Thomas ; Van Heugten, C. M. ; Van Der Jagt, Mathieu ; Van Der Naalt, Joukje. / Variation in structure and process of care in traumatic brain injury : Provider profiles of European Neurotrauma Centers participating in the CENTER-TBI study. In: PLoS One. 2016 ; Vol. 11, No. 8.
@article{eb9ddb532c0d457a82b35c8c0484efab,
title = "Variation in structure and process of care in traumatic brain injury: Provider profiles of European Neurotrauma Centers participating in the CENTER-TBI study",
abstract = "Introduction: The strength of evidence underpinning care and treatment recommendations in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is low. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has been proposed as a framework to provide evidence for optimal care for TBI patients. The first step in CER is to map the existing variation. The aim of current study is to quantify variation in general structural and process characteristics among centers participating in the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study. Methods: We designed a set of 11 provider profiling questionnaires with 321 questions about various aspects of TBI care, chosen based on literature and expert opinion. After pilot testing, questionnaires were disseminated to 71 centers from 20 countries participating in the CENTER-TBI study. Reliability of questionnaires was estimated by calculating a concordance rate among 5{\%} duplicate questions. Results: All 71 centers completed the questionnaires. Median concordance rate among duplicate questions was 0.85. The majority of centers were academic hospitals (n = 65, 92{\%}), designated as a level I trauma center (n = 48, 68{\%}) and situated in an urban location (n = 70, 99{\%}). The availability of facilities for neuro-trauma care varied across centers; e.g. 40 (57{\%}) had a dedicated neuro-intensive care unit (ICU), 36 (51{\%}) had an in-hospital rehabilitation unit and the organization of the ICU was closed in 64{\%} (n = 45) of the centers. In addition, we found wide variation in processes of care, such as the ICU admission policy and intracranial pressure monitoring policy among centers. Conclusion: Even among high-volume, specialized neurotrauma centers there is substantial variation in structures and processes of TBI care. This variation provides an opportunity to study effectiveness of specific aspects of TBI care and to identify best practices with CER approaches.",
author = "Maryse Cnossen and Suzanne Polinder and Lingsma, {Hester F.} and Andrew Maas and Menon, {David K.} and Steyerberg, {Ewout W.} and Hadie Adams and Masala Alessandro and Allanson, {Judith E.} and Krisztina Amrein and Norberto Andaluz and Nada Andelic and Nanni Andrea and Lasse Andreassen and Audny Anke and Anna Antoni and Hilko Ardon and G{\'e}rard Audibert and Kaspars Auslands and Philippe Azouvi and Camelia Baciu and Andrew Bacon and Rafael Badenes and Trevor Baglin and Ronald Bartels and P{\'a}l Barz{\'o} and Ursula Bauerfeind and Ronny Beer and Belda, {Francisco Javier} and Bellander, {Bo Michael} and Antonio Belli and R{\'e}my Bellier and Habib Benali and Thierry Benard and Maurizio Berardino and Luigi Beretta and Christopher Beynon and Federico Bilotta and Harald Binder and Erta Biqiri and Morten Blaabjerg and Borgen, {Lund Stine} and Pierre Bouzat and Peter Bragge and Alexandra Bražinov{\'a} and Felix Brehar and Camilla Brorsson and Andras Buki and Monika Bullinger and Veronika Bučkov{\'a} and E. Calappi and Peter Cameron and Carbayo, {Lozano Guillermo} and Elsa Carise and C. Carpenter and Casta{\~n}o-Le{\'o}n, {Ana M.} and F. Causin and G. Chevallard and Arturo Chieregato and Guiseppe Citerio and Mark Coburn and Coles, {Jonathan P.} and Cooper, {Jamie D.} and Marta Correia and Amra Covic and Nicola Curry and Endre Czeiter and Marek Czosnyka and Claire Dahyot-Fizelier and Fran{\cc}ois Damas and Pierre Damas and Helen Dawes and {De Keyser}, V{\'e}ronique and {Della Corte}, Francesco and Bart Depreitere and Shenghao Ding and Dippel, {Diederik W J} and Kemal Dizdarevic and Duli{\`e}re, {Guy Loup} and Adelaida Dzeko and George Eapen and Heiko Engemann and Ari Ercole and Patrick Esser and Erzs{\'e}bet Ezer and Martin Fabricius and Feigin, {Valery L.} and Junfeng Feng and Kelly Foks and Francesca Fossi and Gilles Francony and Janek Frantz{\'e}n and Ulderico Freo and Frisvold, {Shirin Kordasti} and Alex Furmanov and Pablo Gagliardo and Damien Galanaud and Guoyi Gao and Karin Geleijns and Alexandre Ghuysen and Benoit Giraud and Ben Glocker and Gomez, {Pedro A.} and Francesca Grossi and Russel Gruen and Deepak Gupta and Haagsma, {Juanita A.} and Ermin Hadzic and Ian Haitsma and Hartings, {Jed A.} and Raimund Helbok and Eirik Helseth and Daniel Hertle and Sean Hill and Astrid Hoedemaekers and Stefan Hoefer and Hutchinson, {Peter J.} and H{\aa}berg, {Asta Kristine} and Bram Jacobs and Ivan Janciak and Koen Janssens and Jiang, {Ji Yao} and Kelly Jones and Kalala, {Jean Pierre} and Konstantinos Kamnitsas and Mladen Karan and Jana Karau and Ari Katila and Maija Kaukonen and D. Keeling and Thomas Kerforne and Naomi Ketharanathan and Johannes Kettunen and Riku Kivisaari and Kolias, {Angelos G.} and B{\'a}lint Kolumb{\'a}n and Kompanje, {E. J O} and Daniel Kondziella and Koskinen, {Lars Owe} and No{\'e}mi Kov{\'a}cs and Ferenc Kalovits and Alfonso Lagares and Linda Lanyon and Steven Laureys and Martin Lauritzen and Fiona Lecky and Christian Ledig and Rolf Lefering and Valerie Legrand and Jin Lei and Leon Levi and Roger Lightfoot and Lingsma, {Hester F.} and Dirk Loeckx and Angels Lozano and Roger Luddington and Chantal Luijten-Arts and Maas, {Andrew I.} and Stephen MacDonald and Charles MacFayden and Marc Maegele and Marek Majdan and Sebastian Major and Alex Manara and Pauline Manhes and Manley, {Geoffrey T.} and Didier Martin and Costanza Martino and Armando Maruenda and Hugues Mar{\'e}chal and Dagmara Mastelova and Julia Mattern and Catherine McMahon and B{\'e}la Melegh and Tomas Menovsky and Cristina Morganti-Kossmann and Davide Mulazzi and Manuel Mutschler and Holger M{\"u}hlan and Ancuta Negru and David Nelson and Eddy Neugebauer and Newcombe, {Virginia F.} and Quentin Noirhomme and J{\'o}zsef Nyir{\'a}di and Mauro Oddo and Annemarie Oldenbeuving and Matej Oresic and Fabrizio Ortolano and Aarno Palotie and Paul Parizel and Adriana Patruno and Payen, {Jean Fran{\cc}ois} and Natascha Perera and Vincent Perlbarg and Paolo Persona and Wilco Peul and Nicolas Pichon and Henning Piilgaard and Anna Piippo and Pili, {Floury S{\'e}bastien} and Matti Pirinen and Horia Ples and Inigo Pomposo and Marek Psota and Pim Pullens and Louis Puybasset and Arminas Ragauskas and Rahul Raj and Malinka Rambadagalla and Veronika Rehorč{\'i}kov{\'a} and Rhodes, {Jonathan K J} and Sylvia Richardson and Samuli Ripatti and Saulius Rocka and Nicolas Rodier and Cecilie Roe and Olav Roise and Gerwin Roks and Pauline Romegoux and Jonathan Rosand and Jeffrey Rosenfeld and Christina Rosenlund and Guy Rosenthal and Rolf Rossaint and Sandra Rossi and Tim Rostalski and Rueckert, {Danie L.} and {Ruiz De Arcaute}, Felix and Martin Rusn{\'a}k and Marco Sacchi and Barbara Sahakian and Juan Sahuquillo and Oliver Sakowitz and Francesca Sala and Paola Sanchez-Pena and Renan Sanchez-Porras and Janos Sandor and Edgar Santos and Nadine Sasse and Luminita Sasu and Davide Savo and Inger Schipper and Barbara Schl{\"o}{\ss}er and Silke Schmidt and Annette Schneider and Herbert Schoechl and Schoonman, {G. G.} and Rico Schou and Elisabeth Schwendenwein and Michael Sch{\"o}ll and {\"O}zcan Sir and Toril Skandsen and Lidwien Smakman and Dirk Smeets and Peter Smielewski and Abayomi Sorinola and Stamatakis, {Emmanue L.} and Simon Stanworth and Katrin Stegemann and Nicole Steinb{\"u}chel and Robert Stevens and William Stewart and Nino Stocchetti and Nina Sundstr{\"o}m and Synnot, {Anneliese J.} and J{\'o}zsef Szab{\'o} and Jeannette S{\"o}derberg and Taccone, {F. S.} and Vikt{\'o}ria Tam{\'a}s and P{\"a}ivi Tanskanen and Alexandru Tascu and Taylor, {Mark Steven} and {Te Ao}, Braden and Olli Tenovuo and Guido Teodorani and Alice Theadom and Matt Thomas and Dick Tibboel and Tolias, {Christos M.} and Tshibanda, {Jean Flory Luaba} and Tudora, {Cristina Maria} and Peter Vajkoczy and Egils Valeinis and {Van Hecke}, Wim and {Van Praag}, Dominique and {Van Roost}, Dirk and {Van Vlierberghe}, Eline and {Vande Vyvere}, Thijs and Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse and Alessia Vargiolu and Emmanuel Vega and Jan Verheyden and Vespa, {Paul M.} and Anne Vik and Rimantas Vilcinis and Giacinta Vizzino and Carmen Vleggeert-Lankamp and Victor Volovici and Peter Vulekovic and Zolt{\'a}n V{\'a}mos and Derick Wade and Wang, {Kevin K W} and Lei Wang and Eno Wildschut and Guy Williams and Lisette Willumsen and Adam Wilson and Lindsay Wilson and Winkler, {Maren K L} and Peter Yl{\'e}n and Alexander Younsi and Menashe Zaaroor and Zhiqun Zhang and Zelong Zheng and Fabrizio Zumbo and {De Lange}, Stefanie and {De Ruiter}, {Godard C W} and {Den Boogert}, Hugo and {Van Dijck}, Jeroen and {Van Essen}, Thomas and {Van Heugten}, {C. M.} and {Van Der Jagt}, Mathieu and {Van Der Naalt}, Joukje",
year = "2016",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0161367",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
journal = "PLoS One",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Variation in structure and process of care in traumatic brain injury

T2 - Provider profiles of European Neurotrauma Centers participating in the CENTER-TBI study

AU - Cnossen, Maryse

AU - Polinder, Suzanne

AU - Lingsma, Hester F.

AU - Maas, Andrew

AU - Menon, David K.

AU - Steyerberg, Ewout W.

AU - Adams, Hadie

AU - Alessandro, Masala

AU - Allanson, Judith E.

AU - Amrein, Krisztina

AU - Andaluz, Norberto

AU - Andelic, Nada

AU - Andrea, Nanni

AU - Andreassen, Lasse

AU - Anke, Audny

AU - Antoni, Anna

AU - Ardon, Hilko

AU - Audibert, Gérard

AU - Auslands, Kaspars

AU - Azouvi, Philippe

AU - Baciu, Camelia

AU - Bacon, Andrew

AU - Badenes, Rafael

AU - Baglin, Trevor

AU - Bartels, Ronald

AU - Barzó, Pál

AU - Bauerfeind, Ursula

AU - Beer, Ronny

AU - Belda, Francisco Javier

AU - Bellander, Bo Michael

AU - Belli, Antonio

AU - Bellier, Rémy

AU - Benali, Habib

AU - Benard, Thierry

AU - Berardino, Maurizio

AU - Beretta, Luigi

AU - Beynon, Christopher

AU - Bilotta, Federico

AU - Binder, Harald

AU - Biqiri, Erta

AU - Blaabjerg, Morten

AU - Borgen, Lund Stine

AU - Bouzat, Pierre

AU - Bragge, Peter

AU - Bražinová, Alexandra

AU - Brehar, Felix

AU - Brorsson, Camilla

AU - Buki, Andras

AU - Bullinger, Monika

AU - Bučková, Veronika

AU - Calappi, E.

AU - Cameron, Peter

AU - Carbayo, Lozano Guillermo

AU - Carise, Elsa

AU - Carpenter, C.

AU - Castaño-León, Ana M.

AU - Causin, F.

AU - Chevallard, G.

AU - Chieregato, Arturo

AU - Citerio, Guiseppe

AU - Coburn, Mark

AU - Coles, Jonathan P.

AU - Cooper, Jamie D.

AU - Correia, Marta

AU - Covic, Amra

AU - Curry, Nicola

AU - Czeiter, Endre

AU - Czosnyka, Marek

AU - Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire

AU - Damas, François

AU - Damas, Pierre

AU - Dawes, Helen

AU - De Keyser, Véronique

AU - Della Corte, Francesco

AU - Depreitere, Bart

AU - Ding, Shenghao

AU - Dippel, Diederik W J

AU - Dizdarevic, Kemal

AU - Dulière, Guy Loup

AU - Dzeko, Adelaida

AU - Eapen, George

AU - Engemann, Heiko

AU - Ercole, Ari

AU - Esser, Patrick

AU - Ezer, Erzsébet

AU - Fabricius, Martin

AU - Feigin, Valery L.

AU - Feng, Junfeng

AU - Foks, Kelly

AU - Fossi, Francesca

AU - Francony, Gilles

AU - Frantzén, Janek

AU - Freo, Ulderico

AU - Frisvold, Shirin Kordasti

AU - Furmanov, Alex

AU - Gagliardo, Pablo

AU - Galanaud, Damien

AU - Gao, Guoyi

AU - Geleijns, Karin

AU - Ghuysen, Alexandre

AU - Giraud, Benoit

AU - Glocker, Ben

AU - Gomez, Pedro A.

AU - Grossi, Francesca

AU - Gruen, Russel

AU - Gupta, Deepak

AU - Haagsma, Juanita A.

AU - Hadzic, Ermin

AU - Haitsma, Ian

AU - Hartings, Jed A.

AU - Helbok, Raimund

AU - Helseth, Eirik

AU - Hertle, Daniel

AU - Hill, Sean

AU - Hoedemaekers, Astrid

AU - Hoefer, Stefan

AU - Hutchinson, Peter J.

AU - Håberg, Asta Kristine

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PY - 2016/8/1

Y1 - 2016/8/1

N2 - Introduction: The strength of evidence underpinning care and treatment recommendations in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is low. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has been proposed as a framework to provide evidence for optimal care for TBI patients. The first step in CER is to map the existing variation. The aim of current study is to quantify variation in general structural and process characteristics among centers participating in the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study. Methods: We designed a set of 11 provider profiling questionnaires with 321 questions about various aspects of TBI care, chosen based on literature and expert opinion. After pilot testing, questionnaires were disseminated to 71 centers from 20 countries participating in the CENTER-TBI study. Reliability of questionnaires was estimated by calculating a concordance rate among 5% duplicate questions. Results: All 71 centers completed the questionnaires. Median concordance rate among duplicate questions was 0.85. The majority of centers were academic hospitals (n = 65, 92%), designated as a level I trauma center (n = 48, 68%) and situated in an urban location (n = 70, 99%). The availability of facilities for neuro-trauma care varied across centers; e.g. 40 (57%) had a dedicated neuro-intensive care unit (ICU), 36 (51%) had an in-hospital rehabilitation unit and the organization of the ICU was closed in 64% (n = 45) of the centers. In addition, we found wide variation in processes of care, such as the ICU admission policy and intracranial pressure monitoring policy among centers. Conclusion: Even among high-volume, specialized neurotrauma centers there is substantial variation in structures and processes of TBI care. This variation provides an opportunity to study effectiveness of specific aspects of TBI care and to identify best practices with CER approaches.

AB - Introduction: The strength of evidence underpinning care and treatment recommendations in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is low. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has been proposed as a framework to provide evidence for optimal care for TBI patients. The first step in CER is to map the existing variation. The aim of current study is to quantify variation in general structural and process characteristics among centers participating in the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study. Methods: We designed a set of 11 provider profiling questionnaires with 321 questions about various aspects of TBI care, chosen based on literature and expert opinion. After pilot testing, questionnaires were disseminated to 71 centers from 20 countries participating in the CENTER-TBI study. Reliability of questionnaires was estimated by calculating a concordance rate among 5% duplicate questions. Results: All 71 centers completed the questionnaires. Median concordance rate among duplicate questions was 0.85. The majority of centers were academic hospitals (n = 65, 92%), designated as a level I trauma center (n = 48, 68%) and situated in an urban location (n = 70, 99%). The availability of facilities for neuro-trauma care varied across centers; e.g. 40 (57%) had a dedicated neuro-intensive care unit (ICU), 36 (51%) had an in-hospital rehabilitation unit and the organization of the ICU was closed in 64% (n = 45) of the centers. In addition, we found wide variation in processes of care, such as the ICU admission policy and intracranial pressure monitoring policy among centers. Conclusion: Even among high-volume, specialized neurotrauma centers there is substantial variation in structures and processes of TBI care. This variation provides an opportunity to study effectiveness of specific aspects of TBI care and to identify best practices with CER approaches.

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U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0161367

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0161367

M3 - Article

VL - 11

JO - PLoS One

JF - PLoS One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 8

M1 - e0161367

ER -