Varied functions of immune checkpoints during cancer metastasis.

Ali Safarzadeh, Mohsen Alizadeh, Fatemeh Beyranvand, Reza Falavand Jozaaee, Khalil Hajiasgharzadeh, Amir Baghbanzadeh, Afshin Derakhshani, Antonella Argentiero, Behzad Baradaran, Nicola Silvestris

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Immune checkpoints comprise diverse receptors and ligands including costimulatory and inhibitory molecules, which play monumental roles in regulating the immune system. Immune checkpoints retain key potentials in maintaining the immune system homeostasis and hindering the malignancy development and autoimmunity. The expression of inhibitory immune checkpoints delineates an increase in a plethora of metastatic tumors and the inhibition of these immune checkpoints can be followed by promising results. On the other hand, the stimulation of costimulatory immune checkpoints can restrain the metastasis originating from diverse tumors. From the review above, key findings emerged regarding potential functions of inhibitory and costimulatory immune checkpoints targeting the metastatic cascade and point towards novel potential Achilles’ heels of cancer that might be exploited therapeutically in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)569-588
JournalCancer Immunology, Immunotherapy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Immune checkpoints
  • Immune system
  • Metastasis
  • Tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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