Venous pathologies in paediatric neuroradiology: from foetal to adolescent life

Kshitij Mankad, Asthik Biswas, Maria Camilla Rossi Espagnet, Luke Dixon, Nihaal Reddy, Ai Peng Tan, Ozgur Oztekin, Felice D'Arco, Karuna Shekdar, Prakash Muthusami, Fergus Robertson, Stacy Goergen, Winston Chong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The interpretation of cerebral venous pathologies in paediatric practice is challenging as there are several normal anatomical variants, and the pathologies are diverse, involving the venous system through direct and indirect mechanisms. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of these entities, as their awareness can avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls. We also propose a practical classification system of paediatric cerebral venous pathologies, which will enable more accurate reporting of the neuroimaging findings, as relevant to the underlying pathogenesis of these conditions. The proposed classification system comprises of the following main groups: arterio-venous shunting-related disorders, primary venous malformations and veno-occlusive disorders. A multimodal imaging approach has been included in the relevant subsections, with a brief overview of the modality-specific pitfalls that can also limit interpretation of the neuroimaging. The article also summarises the current literature and international practices in terms of management options and outcomes in specific disease entities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-37
Number of pages23
Issue number1
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2019


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