The defects that may be suitable for percutaneous closure are located within the muscular septum (muscular ventricular septal defects, MVSD) or in the perimembranous septum (perimembranous ventricular septal defects, PVSD) with or without aneurysm, and they can be native of residual post surgery. Surgical repair is currently the only option for doubly committed or supracristal defects, for perimembranous defects associated with prolapse of aortic valve and aortic regurgitation and for any defect associated with malalignment of the muscular outlet septum or straddling and overriding atrioventricular valves. Large defects give signs and symptoms of cardiac failure in early infancy, and they have to be treated surgically during the first months of life.
|Title of host publication||Cardiac Catheterization for Congenital Heart Disease: From Fetal Life to Adulthood|
|Number of pages||23|
|ISBN (Print)||9788847056817, 9788847056800|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2015|
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