Vernal keratoconjunctivitis revisited: A case series of 195 patients with long-term followup

Stefano Bonini, Sergio Bonini, Alessandro Lambiase, Stefano Marchi, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Ornella Zuccaro, Paolo Rama, Laura Magrini, Tomas Juhas, Massimo G. Bucci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: This Study aimed at revisiting vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) on the basis of anamnestic, clinical, immunologic, histopathologic, and followup data of 195 patients. Design: Retrospective noncomparative case series. Participants: One hundred and ninety-five patients with VKC. Methods: Clinical evaluation and outcome in 151 of 195 patients with a median followup of 47 months. Evaluation was by telephone survey in 69 patients. Main Outceme Measures: (1) Demographic, clinical, and immunologic features of VKC and their influence on the course of the disease; (2) conjunctival and corneal complications and efficacy of treatment observed during the followup period. Results: VKC is a chronic disease. More than 60% of patients had repeated recurrences all year round. Males had an earlier presentation of symptoms than females and the male/female ratio decreased with age. Major (greater than 80%) and minor (up to 80%) diagnostic criteria were defined for clinical signs and symptoms of the disease. Negative skin test or radioallergosorbent test was present in approximately 50% of patients, whereas eosinophil infiltration was a constant histopathologic finding. A marked conjunctival sensitivity to nonspecific stimuli was noted in more than one third of patients. In 6% of cases, a reduction of visual acuity resulted from corneal scarring, and in 2% of patients, steroid-induced glaucoma was observed. The large size of giant papillae indicates poor prognosis for the persistence of the disease and its evolution into a chronic, perennial condition. Conclusions: VKC is a chronic eosinophilic disease of the ocular surface involving IgE, non IgE-mediated mechanisms, and age-sex-related influences. Although the disease has a good prognosis, severe visual impairments may result from long-standing inflammation. (C) 2000 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1157-1163
Number of pages7
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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