Childhood periodic syndromes are a set of disorders beginning in a pediatric age, characterized by an episodic pattern with intervals of complete health. They have been included by the International Headache Society as precursors of migraine. In two of these syndromes, namely, benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood and benign torticollis of infancy, malfunction of the vestibular system may be hypothesized. Benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood is characterized by episodes of true vertigo and postural imbalance lasting from a few seconds to several minutes, the age of onset is more frequent between 2 and 4 years, and symptoms disappear around the age of 5 years. Additional symptoms such as pallor, sweating, nausea and vomiting, and phono- and photophobia are commonly reported. Clinical exams in the symptom-free periods are generally normal. Benign torticollis of infancy is a rare clinical disorder, characterized by recurrent episodes of cervical dystonia, often associated with autonomic signs. In this chapter, the clinical features and diagnostic criteria of both disorders are overviewed. Moreover, epidemiological and clinical data supporting the hypothesis that both disorders may be a migraine precursor are discussed.
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