Very-low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in the management of metabolic diseases

systematic review and consensus statement from the Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE)

the Cardiovascular Endocrinology Club of the Italian Society of Endocrinology, Massimiliano Caprio, M. Infante, E. Moriconi, A. Armani, A. Fabbri, G. Mantovani, S. Mariani, C. Lubrano, E. Poggiogalle, S. Migliaccio, L. M. Donini, S. Basciani, A. Cignarelli, E. Conte, G. Ceccarini, F. Bogazzi, L. Cimino, R. A. Condorelli, S. La Vignera & 17 others A. E. Calogero, A. Gambineri, L. Vignozzi, F. Prodam, G. Aimaretti, G. Linsalata, S. Buralli, F. Monzani, A. Aversa, R. Vettor, F. Santini, P. Vitti, L. Gnessi, U. Pagotto, F. Giorgino, A. Colao, A. Lenzi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Background: Weight loss is a milestone in the prevention of chronic diseases associated with high morbility and mortality in industrialized countries. Very-low calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKDs) are increasingly used in clinical practice for weight loss and management of obesity-related comorbidities. Despite evidence on the clinical benefits of VLCKDs is rapidly emerging, some concern still exists about their potential risks and their use in the long-term, due to paucity of clinical studies. Notably, there is an important lack of guidelines on this topic, and the use and implementation of VLCKDs occurs vastly in the absence of clear evidence-based indications. Purpose: We describe here the biochemistry, benefits and risks of VLCKDs, and provide recommendations on the correct use of this therapeutic approach for weight loss and management of metabolic diseases at different stages of life.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1365-1386
JournalJournal of Endocrinological Investigation
Volume42
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Ketogenic Diet
Caloric Restriction
Endocrinology
Metabolic Diseases
Weight Loss
Therapeutic Uses
Developed Countries
Biochemistry
Comorbidity
Chronic Disease
Obesity
Guidelines
Mortality

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular rehabilitation
  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Ketone bodies
  • Obesity
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Weight loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Very-low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in the management of metabolic diseases : systematic review and consensus statement from the Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE). / the Cardiovascular Endocrinology Club of the Italian Society of Endocrinology ; Caprio, Massimiliano; Infante, M.; Moriconi, E.; Armani, A.; Fabbri, A.; Mantovani, G.; Mariani, S.; Lubrano, C.; Poggiogalle, E.; Migliaccio, S.; Donini, L. M.; Basciani, S.; Cignarelli, A.; Conte, E.; Ceccarini, G.; Bogazzi, F.; Cimino, L.; Condorelli, R. A.; La Vignera, S.; Calogero, A. E.; Gambineri, A.; Vignozzi, L.; Prodam, F.; Aimaretti, G.; Linsalata, G.; Buralli, S.; Monzani, F.; Aversa, A.; Vettor, R.; Santini, F.; Vitti, P.; Gnessi, L.; Pagotto, U.; Giorgino, F.; Colao, A.; Lenzi, A.

In: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, Vol. 42, No. 11, 01.01.2019, p. 1365-1386.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

the Cardiovascular Endocrinology Club of the Italian Society of Endocrinology, Caprio, M, Infante, M, Moriconi, E, Armani, A, Fabbri, A, Mantovani, G, Mariani, S, Lubrano, C, Poggiogalle, E, Migliaccio, S, Donini, LM, Basciani, S, Cignarelli, A, Conte, E, Ceccarini, G, Bogazzi, F, Cimino, L, Condorelli, RA, La Vignera, S, Calogero, AE, Gambineri, A, Vignozzi, L, Prodam, F, Aimaretti, G, Linsalata, G, Buralli, S, Monzani, F, Aversa, A, Vettor, R, Santini, F, Vitti, P, Gnessi, L, Pagotto, U, Giorgino, F, Colao, A & Lenzi, A 2019, 'Very-low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in the management of metabolic diseases: systematic review and consensus statement from the Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE)', Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 1365-1386. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40618-019-01061-2
the Cardiovascular Endocrinology Club of the Italian Society of Endocrinology ; Caprio, Massimiliano ; Infante, M. ; Moriconi, E. ; Armani, A. ; Fabbri, A. ; Mantovani, G. ; Mariani, S. ; Lubrano, C. ; Poggiogalle, E. ; Migliaccio, S. ; Donini, L. M. ; Basciani, S. ; Cignarelli, A. ; Conte, E. ; Ceccarini, G. ; Bogazzi, F. ; Cimino, L. ; Condorelli, R. A. ; La Vignera, S. ; Calogero, A. E. ; Gambineri, A. ; Vignozzi, L. ; Prodam, F. ; Aimaretti, G. ; Linsalata, G. ; Buralli, S. ; Monzani, F. ; Aversa, A. ; Vettor, R. ; Santini, F. ; Vitti, P. ; Gnessi, L. ; Pagotto, U. ; Giorgino, F. ; Colao, A. ; Lenzi, A. / Very-low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in the management of metabolic diseases : systematic review and consensus statement from the Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE). In: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2019 ; Vol. 42, No. 11. pp. 1365-1386.
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abstract = "Background: Weight loss is a milestone in the prevention of chronic diseases associated with high morbility and mortality in industrialized countries. Very-low calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKDs) are increasingly used in clinical practice for weight loss and management of obesity-related comorbidities. Despite evidence on the clinical benefits of VLCKDs is rapidly emerging, some concern still exists about their potential risks and their use in the long-term, due to paucity of clinical studies. Notably, there is an important lack of guidelines on this topic, and the use and implementation of VLCKDs occurs vastly in the absence of clear evidence-based indications. Purpose: We describe here the biochemistry, benefits and risks of VLCKDs, and provide recommendations on the correct use of this therapeutic approach for weight loss and management of metabolic diseases at different stages of life.",
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T2 - systematic review and consensus statement from the Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE)

AU - the Cardiovascular Endocrinology Club of the Italian Society of Endocrinology

AU - Caprio, Massimiliano

AU - Infante, M.

AU - Moriconi, E.

AU - Armani, A.

AU - Fabbri, A.

AU - Mantovani, G.

AU - Mariani, S.

AU - Lubrano, C.

AU - Poggiogalle, E.

AU - Migliaccio, S.

AU - Donini, L. M.

AU - Basciani, S.

AU - Cignarelli, A.

AU - Conte, E.

AU - Ceccarini, G.

AU - Bogazzi, F.

AU - Cimino, L.

AU - Condorelli, R. A.

AU - La Vignera, S.

AU - Calogero, A. E.

AU - Gambineri, A.

AU - Vignozzi, L.

AU - Prodam, F.

AU - Aimaretti, G.

AU - Linsalata, G.

AU - Buralli, S.

AU - Monzani, F.

AU - Aversa, A.

AU - Vettor, R.

AU - Santini, F.

AU - Vitti, P.

AU - Gnessi, L.

AU - Pagotto, U.

AU - Giorgino, F.

AU - Colao, A.

AU - Lenzi, A.

AU - Caprio, Massimiliano

AU - Bogazzi, Fausto

AU - Beccuti, Guglielmo

AU - Biondi, Bernadette

AU - Cannavò, Salvatore

AU - Chiodini, Iacopo

AU - De Feudis, Giuseppe

AU - Di Francesco, Simona

AU - Di Gregorio, Aldo

AU - Fallo, Francesco

AU - Foresta, Carlo

AU - Giacchetti, Gilberta

AU - Granata, Riccarda

AU - Pontecorvi, Alfredo

PY - 2019/1/1

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N2 - Background: Weight loss is a milestone in the prevention of chronic diseases associated with high morbility and mortality in industrialized countries. Very-low calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKDs) are increasingly used in clinical practice for weight loss and management of obesity-related comorbidities. Despite evidence on the clinical benefits of VLCKDs is rapidly emerging, some concern still exists about their potential risks and their use in the long-term, due to paucity of clinical studies. Notably, there is an important lack of guidelines on this topic, and the use and implementation of VLCKDs occurs vastly in the absence of clear evidence-based indications. Purpose: We describe here the biochemistry, benefits and risks of VLCKDs, and provide recommendations on the correct use of this therapeutic approach for weight loss and management of metabolic diseases at different stages of life.

AB - Background: Weight loss is a milestone in the prevention of chronic diseases associated with high morbility and mortality in industrialized countries. Very-low calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKDs) are increasingly used in clinical practice for weight loss and management of obesity-related comorbidities. Despite evidence on the clinical benefits of VLCKDs is rapidly emerging, some concern still exists about their potential risks and their use in the long-term, due to paucity of clinical studies. Notably, there is an important lack of guidelines on this topic, and the use and implementation of VLCKDs occurs vastly in the absence of clear evidence-based indications. Purpose: We describe here the biochemistry, benefits and risks of VLCKDs, and provide recommendations on the correct use of this therapeutic approach for weight loss and management of metabolic diseases at different stages of life.

KW - Cardiovascular rehabilitation

KW - Cardiovascular risk

KW - Ketone bodies

KW - Obesity

KW - Type 2 diabetes

KW - Weight loss

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U2 - 10.1007/s40618-019-01061-2

DO - 10.1007/s40618-019-01061-2

M3 - Review article

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EP - 1386

JO - Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

JF - Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

SN - 0391-4097

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