Vesico-ureteral reflux in children: Update on diagnosis and treatment

P. Caione, N. Capozza, S. Nappo, E. Matarazzo, A. Lais

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Vesico-ureteral reflux is one of the most frequent uropathies in children, and one of the main causes of hypertension and chronic renal failure in infants and adolescents. In children with urinary tract infections, a correct diagnostic protocol should include, beside renal and vesical ultrasound, cystourethrogram and renal scan, the evaluation of voiding habits, to detect any underlying voiding dysfunction. Aimed at early diagnosis, screening protocols of children at risk for vesico-ureteral reflux, such as siblings of affected patients and newborn babies have recently been suggested. Therapeutic strategies for reflux available nowadays include long term antibiotic prophylaxis, endoscopic treatment by means of different injectable substances, and open surgery. Clinical Practice Guidelines for standardized diagnosis and treatment of reflux are suggested.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)397-404
Number of pages8
JournalActa Urologica Italica
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1997


  • Bladder
  • Chronic renal failure
  • Endoscopy
  • Ureteral reimplant
  • Vesico-ureteral reflux

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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