Violence versus gratitude: Courses of recognition in caring situations

Duilio F. Manara, Noemi Giannetta, Giulia Villa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Pandemic infection by COVID-19 could be changing the public image of the nursing profession in Italy. Recently, as in any western country, we were being registered with an increase in the number of violence against healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, due to pandemic in the social media, the nursing profession is remembered for competence, determination, courage, and humanity, and it is continually remercied by people, politicians, and journalists. In this paper, we will conduct a phenomenological argument that proposes both phenomena can be explained by Paul Ricoeur's courses of recognition. In cases of violence, patients and their family members reacting because they feel betrayed for a real or alleged injustice—primarily not to be listened to by health professionals. Nurses and other professionals are often unable to take the right grade of involvement for understanding patient's needs. On the other hand, during COVID-19 pandemic, patients and family members perceive the extraordinary daily work of caring, and they react thanking. The principle of the gift is implicated in both cases: the crisis of gift received or donated can be explaining violence; gratitude and thanks can be explaining by gratuitousness of care.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12312
JournalNursing Philosophy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2020


  • COVID-19
  • gratitude
  • nursing care
  • Paul Ricoeur
  • recognition
  • violence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Research and Theory
  • Issues, ethics and legal aspects


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