The modulation of the host innate immune system is a well-established carcinogenesis feature of several tumors, including human papillomavirus- (HPV-) related cancers. This virus is able to interrupt the initial events of the immune response, including the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, and inflammation. Both TLRs and cytokines play a central role in HPV recognition, cell maturation and differentiation as well as immune signalling. Therefore, the imbalance of this sensitive control of the immune response is a key factor for developing immunotherapies, which strengthen the host immune system to accomplish an efficient defence against HPV and HPV-infected cells. Based on this, the review is aimed at exposing the HPV immune evasion mechanisms involving TLRs and cytokines and at discussing existing and potential immunotherapeutic TLR- and cytokine-related tools.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy