Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer: A pooled analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium

M. Waterhouse, H. A. Risch, C. Bosetti, K. E. Anderson, G. M. Petersen, W. R. Bamlet, M. Cotterchio, S. P. Cleary, T. I. Ibiebele, C. La Vecchia, H. G. Skinner, L. Strayer, P. M. Bracci, P. Maisonneuve, H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita, W. Zatoński, L. Lu, H. Yu, K. Janik-Koncewicz, Rachel E. Neale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The potential role of vitamin D in the aetiology of pancreatic cancer is unclear, with recent studies suggesting both positive and negative associations. Patients and methods: We used data from nine case-control studies from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case- Control Consortium (PanC4) to examine associations between pancreatic cancer risk and dietary vitamin D intake. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, and ORs were then pooled using a random-effects model. From a subset of four studies, we also calculated pooled estimates of association for supplementary and total vitamin D intake. Results: Risk of pancreatic cancer increased with dietary intake of vitamin D [per 100 international units (IU)/day: OR = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.19, P = 7.4 × 10-6, P-heterogeneity = 0.52; ≥230 versus -3, P-heterogeneity = 0.81], with the association possibly stronger in people with low retinol/vitamin A intake. Conclusion: Increased risk of pancreatic cancer was observed with higher levels of dietary vitamin D intake. Additional studies are required to determine whether or not our finding has a causal basis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1776-1783
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Oncology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Case-control studies
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Pooled analysis
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Hematology


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