Opinions are conflicting about the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. This population-based study investigated cross-sectionally the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) with indices of mineral homeostasis. Study cohort consisted of 979 persons of the Moli-Sani study, both sexes, ages ≥35 years. Data collection included serum calcidiol by different assays, serum calcitriol, serum parathyroid hormone, serum and urine calcium, and phosphorus. Prevalence of mild-to-moderate calcidiol deficiency (10-19 ng/mL) was 36.4% and did not associate with hypocalcemia or hyperparathyroidism. Prevalence of severe calcidiol deficiency (<10 ng/mL) was 16.8% and associated with hyperparathyroidism only (odds ratio = 8.81, 95% confidence interval = 2.4/32.9). Prevalence of calcitriol deficiency (<18 pg/mL) was 3.1% and associated with hypocalcemia (29.1, 7.4/114.5) but not hyperparathyroidism. In ANOVA along concentration strata, lower calcidiol associated with higher parathyroid hormone only (p < 0.001). Lower calcitriol associated with lower serum and urine calcium (p < 0.001) but not with parathyroid hormone. Calcidiol findings were consistent with different calcidiol assays. In the population, mild-to-moderate calcidiol deficiency did not associate with abnormal mineral homeostasis. Severe calcidiol deficiency and calcitriol deficiency associated with different disorders: lower calcidiol associated with hyperparathyroidism whereas lower calcitriol associated with hypocalcemia and low urine calcium.