OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency, even subclinical, has been considered to worsen the skeletal damage in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Our study aimed to investigate the impact of vitamin D status on skeletal involvement in PHPT. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: A cross-sectional study was designed involving 62 female patients with PHPT. Serum total calcium (tCa), phosphate (P), creatinine (Cr) and total alkaline phosphatase activity (AP), together with 24-h (uCa 24 h) and spot fasting (uCa/Cr) urinary calcium, were measured by autoanalyser; ionized calcium (iCa) was assessed by an ion-specific electrode; intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) was measured by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at lumbar spine in 58 patients, and at femoral neck, Ward's triangle, greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line and total hip in 56 patients. The associations of all variables with age, 25-OHD, body mass index (BMI) and PTH were studied by linear multiple regression analysis, using progressively restricted models. RESULTS: The model including age, 25-OHD, PTH and BMI showed significant regression with BMD values. PTH, age and BMI exerted a leading role in determining such a significance, while no significant regression was found between the parameters studied and 25-OHD; this was confirmed by Pearson's linear correlation analysis. The progressively restricted models showed significant regression of BMD at femoral neck, femoral intertrochanteric line and total hip with age, BMI and PTH. BMD measured at the Ward's triangle and greater trochanter showed significant regression with age and BMI, and that measured at lumbar spine with age. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that in primary hyperparathyroidism patients the influence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels on bone mineral density, if any, was overwhelmed by the effects of parathyroid hormone excess, age and body mass index. The latter unequally affected bone mineral density of various measured sites with different composition.
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