VLPs and particle strategies for cancer vaccines

Francesca Ungaro, Claudia Conte, Fabiana Quaglia, Maria Lina Tornesello, Franco M. Buonaguro, Luigi Buonaguro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Effective delivery of tumor antigens to APCs is one of the key steps for eliciting a strong and durable immune response to tumors. Several cancer vaccines have been evaluated in clinical trials, based on soluble peptides, but results have not been fully satisfactory. To improve immunogenicity particles provide a valid strategy to display and/or incorporate epitopes which can be efficiently targeted to APCs for effective induction of adaptive immunity. In the present review, we report some leading technologies for developing particulate vaccines employed in cancer immunotherapy, highlighting the key parameters for a rational design to elicit both humoral and cellular responses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1173-1193
Number of pages21
JournalExpert Review of Vaccines
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • antigen presenting cells
  • cancer vaccines
  • HBV
  • HPV
  • ISCOMs
  • liposomes
  • nanoparticles
  • polymers
  • virus-like particles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmacology
  • Molecular Medicine


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