What do we have to know about pd-l1 expression in prostate cancer? A systematic literature review. part 1: Focus on immunohistochemical results with discussion of pre-analytical and interpretation variables

Andrea Palicelli, Martina Bonacini, Stefania Croci, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Sofia Cañete-Portillo, Alcides Chaux, Alessandra Bisagni, Eleonora Zanetti, Dario De Biase, Beatrice Melli, Francesca Sanguedolce, Moira Ragazzi, Maria Paola Bonasoni, Alessandra Soriano, Stefano Ascani, Maurizio Zizzo, Carolina Castro Ruiz, Antonio De Leo, Guido Giordano, Matteo LandriscinaGiuseppe Carrieri, Luigi Cormio, Daniel M. Berney, Daniel Athanazio, Jatin Gandhi, Alberto Cavazza, Giacomo Santandrea, Alessandro Tafuni, Magda Zanelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Immunotherapy targeting the PD-1–PD-L1 axis yielded good results in treating different immunologically ‘‘hot’’ tumors. A phase II study revealed good therapeutic activity of pembroli-zumab in selected prostatic carcinoma (PC)-patients. We performed a systematic literature review (PRISMA guidelines), which analyzes the immunohistochemical expression of PD-L1 in human PC samples and highlights the pre-analytical and interpretation variables. Interestingly, 29% acinar PCs, 7% ductal PCs, and 46% neuroendocrine carcinomas/tumors were PD-L1+ on immunohisto-chemistry. Different scoring methods or cut-off criteria were applied on variable specimen-types, evaluating tumors showing different clinic-pathologic features. The positivity rate of different PD-L1 antibody clones in tumor cells ranged from 3% (SP142) to 50% (ABM4E54), excluding the single case tested for RM-320. The most tested clone was E1L3N, followed by 22C3 (most used for pem-brolizumab eligibility), SP263, SP142, and 28-8, which gave the positivity rates of 35%, 11–41% (de-pending on different scoring systems), 6%, 3%, and 15%, respectively. Other clones were tested in <200 cases. The PD-L1 positivity rate was usually higher in tumors than benign tissues. It was higher in non-tissue microarray specimens (41–50% vs. 15%), as PC cells frequently showed heterogenous or focal PD-L1-staining. PD-L1 was expressed by immune or stromal cells in 12% and 69% cases, respectively. Tumor heterogeneity, inter-institutional preanalytics, and inter-observer interpretation variability may account for result biases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3166
JournalCells
Volume10
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021

Keywords

  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Cancer
  • Checkpoint inhibitors
  • Im-munotherapy
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • PD-L1
  • Prostate
  • Target-therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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