New therapies for advanced melanoma have led to major advances, which, for the first time, showed improved survival for patients with this very challenging neoplasm. These new treatments are based on gene-targeted therapies or stimulation of immune responses. However, these treatments are not without challenges in terms of resistance and toxicity. Physicians should be aware of these side effects as prompt treatment may save lives. Melanoma genetics is also unravelling new genetic risk factors involving telomere genes as well as new gene pathways at the somatic level which may soon become therapeutic targets. It is also shedding new light onto the pathology of this tumour with links to neural diseases and longevity.
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