When to Suspect Hidden Hypercortisolism in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis

Carmen Aresta, Davide Soranna, Luca Giovanelli, Vittoria Favero, Chiara Parazzoli, Luigi Gennari, Luca Persani, Alfredo Scillitani, Lewis S. Blevins, David Brown, Dan Einhorn, Rosario Pivonello, Kevin M. Pantalone, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen, Antonella Zambon, Iacopo Chiodini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To investigate whether the available literature helps to identify the characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) more frequently associated with hidden hypercortisolism (HidHyCo). Methods: A meta-analysis was performed using studies that assessed both the prevalence of HidHyCo in patients with T2D and the characteristics of these patients with and without HidHyCo. The DerSimonian and Laird (DSL) and Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman (HKSJ) methods were utilized. Results: Among the 18 available studies, 6 provided the necessary data. The association between HidHyCo and advanced T2D (based on the patients’ description given in each study in the presence of microvascular/macrovascular complications or insulin treatment plus hypertension or hypertension treated with 2 or more drugs), hypertension, insulin treatment, and dyslipidemia was reported in 5 (2184 patients), 6 (2283 patients), 3 (1440 patients), and 3 (987 patients) studies, respectively. HidHyCo was associated with advanced T2D as assessed by both the DSL (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.12-5.67) and HKSJ (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 2.03-6.41) methods and with the prevalence of hypertension or insulin treatment as assessed by the DSL method (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.05-3.50 and OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.07-4.91, respectively) but not as assessed by the HKSJ method. Conclusion: Patients with advanced T2D have a higher prevalence of HidHyCo. These data inform about the selection of patients with T2D for HidHyCo screening.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1216-1224
Number of pages9
JournalEndocrine Practice
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • diabetes
  • hypercortisolism
  • hypertension
  • insulin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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