White matter alterations at 33-year follow-up in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Samuele Cortese, Davide Imperati, Juan Zhou, Erika Proal, Rachel G. Klein, Salvatore Mannuzza, Maria A. Ramos-Olazagasti, Michael P. Milham, Clare Kelly, F. Xavier Castellanos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly conceived as reflecting altered functional and structural brain connectivity. The latter can be addressed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We examined fractional anisotropy (FA), a DTI index related to white matter structural properties, in adult male subjects diagnosed with ADHD in childhood (probands) and matched control subjects without childhood ADHD. Additionally, we contrasted FA among probands with and without current ADHD in adulthood and control subjects. Methods: Participants were from an original cohort of 207 boys and 178 male control subjects. At 33-year follow-up, analyzable DTI scans were obtained in 51 probands (41.3±2.8 yrs) and 66 control subjects (41.2±3.1 yrs). Voxel-based FA was computed with tract-based spatial statistics, controlling for multiple comparisons. Results: Probands with childhood ADHD exhibited significantly lower FA than control subjects without childhood ADHD in the right superior and posterior corona radiata, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, and in a left cluster including the posterior thalamic radiation, the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, and the sagittal stratum (p

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)591-598
Number of pages8
JournalBiological Psychiatry
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Oct 15 2013


  • ADHD
  • DTI
  • fractional anisotropy
  • longitudinal follow-up
  • neuroimaging
  • pathophysiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biological Psychiatry


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