Whole-body cryotherapy in athletes: From therapy to stimulation. An updated review of the literature

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nowadays, whole-body cryotherapy is a medical physical treatment widely used in sports medicine. Recovery from injuries (e.g., trauma, overuse) and after-season recovery are the main purposes for application. However, the most recent studies confirmed the anti-inflammatory, anti-analgesic, and anti-oxidant effects of this therapy by highlighting the underlying physiological responses. In addition to its therapeutic effects, whole-body cryotherapy has been demonstrated to be a preventive strategy against the deleterious effects of exercise-induced inflammation and soreness. Novel findings have stressed the importance of fat mass on cooling effectiveness and of the starting fitness level on the final result. Exposure to the cryotherapy somehow mimics exercise, since it affects myokines expression in an exercise-like fashion, thus opening another possible window on the therapeutic strategies for metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. From a biochemical point of view, whole-body cryotherapy not always induces appreciable modifications, but the final clinical output (in terms of pain, soreness, stress, and post-exercise recovery) is very often improved compared to either the starting condition or the untreated matched group. Also, the number and the frequency of sessions that should be applied in order to obtain the best therapeutic results have been deeply investigated in the last years. In this article, we reviewed the most recent literature, from 2010 until present, in order to give the most updated insight into this therapeutic strategy, whose rapidly increasing use is not always based on scientific assumptions and safety standards.

Original languageEnglish
Article number258
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Volume8
Issue numberMAY
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2 2017

Fingerprint

Cryotherapy
Athletes
Exercise
Therapeutics
Sports Medicine
Metabolic Diseases
Wounds and Injuries
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Research Design
Obesity
Antioxidants
Fats
Inflammation
Safety
Pain

Keywords

  • Cryochamber
  • Inflammation
  • Irisin
  • Metabolic effects
  • Recovery
  • Whole-body cryotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Whole-body cryotherapy in athletes : From therapy to stimulation. An updated review of the literature. / Lombardi, Giovanni; Ziemann, Ewa; Banfi, Giuseppe.

In: Frontiers in Physiology, Vol. 8, No. MAY, 258, 02.05.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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