Background: Infection is the most common cause of mortality within the first year after lung transplantation (LTx). The management of perioperative antibiotic therapy is a major issue, but little is known about worldwide practices. Methods: We sent by email a survey dealing with 5 daily clinical vignettes concerning perioperative antibiotic therapy to 180 LTx centers around the world. The invitation and a weekly reminder were sent to lung transplant specialists for a single consensus answer per center during a 3-month period. Results: We received a total of 99 responses from 24 countries, mostly from Western Europe (n = 46) and the USA (n = 34). Systematic screening for bronchial recipient colonization before LTx was mostly performed with sputum samples (72%), regardless of the underlying lung disease. In recipients without colonization, antibiotics with activity against gram-negative bacteria resistant strains (piperacillin/tazobactam, cefepime, ceftazidime, carbapenems) were reported in 72% of the centers, and antibiotics with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (mainly vancomycin) were reported in 38% of the centers. For these recipients, the duration of antibiotics reported was 7 days (33%) or less (26%) or stopped when cultures of donor and recipients were reported negatives (12%). In recipients with previous colonization, antibiotics were adapted to the susceptibility of the most resistant strain and given for at least 14 days (67%). Conclusion: Practices vary widely around the world, but resistant bacterial strains are mostly targeted even if no colonization occurs. The antibiotic duration reported was longer for colonized recipients.
- Antibiotic therapy
- Bronchial colonization
- Lung transplantation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine