PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between wrist circumference, markers of adipose dysfunction, and cardiovascular risk in youths with obesity.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we measured body mass composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, wrist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, fasting blood insulin, glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, and leptin in 280 children with overweight/obesity and without diabetes (age: 7-18 years). Cardiovascular risk was estimated by "metabolic syndrome score" (MetS score).
RESULTS: Study participants had median [25th-75th percentile] wrist circumference of 17.5 [16.7-18.5] cm and waist-to-height ratio of 0.62 [0.59-0.67]. Lower adiponectin-leptin ratio was found among subjects in the upper 50th percentiles of wrist circumference [0.17 (0.09-0.36) vs. 0.38 (0.16-0.79); p < 0.001]. Wrist circumference was independently associated with MetS score (r = 0.5 p < 0.001). Among MetS score components, an independent association between wrist circumference HDLc, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure was found (r = - 0.253 p < 0.001; r =+ 0.204 p < 0.001; r = + 0.403 p = < 0.001, respectively). The coefficient of determination for MetS score was nominally higher when considering wrist circumference as independent variable (Adj-R2 = 0.30) then when considering body mass index SD (Adj-R2 = 0.28), waist-to-height ratio (Adj-R2 = 0.26) or truncal fat percentage (Adj-R2 = 0.01). The addition of wrist circumference in age and gender adjusted models, accounting to any other anthropometric parameters, resulted in a significant improvement of the Adj-R2 (p < 0.001 for all).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that wrist circumference independently relates to adiponectin-leptin ratio and to the prediction of cardiovascular risk, suggesting it as an efficient and adjunctive anthropometric marker of cardiometabolic risk in children with obesity.