Expression of the Y-box protein YB-1 is increased in proliferating normal and cancer cells, but its role in cell proliferation and cell cycle progression is unclear. We have identified a cell cycle-dependent relocalization of YB-1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at the G1/S phase transition and demonstrate that both the charged zipper and the cold shock domain are involved in regulating this process. Using cell lines that constitutively overexpress YB-1, we show that nuclear accumulation of YB-1 is associated with increased cyclin A and cyclin B1 mRNA and protein expression. We provide evidence that deregulated YB-1 expression is linked to adhesion-independent cell proliferation through the induction of cyclin A. Thus, we have identified YB-1 as a cell cycle stage-specific transcription factor important for cell proliferation.
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