Mammalian organisms form intimate interfaces with commensal and pathogenic gut microorganisms. Increasing evidence suggests a close interaction between gut microorganisms and the enteric nervous system (ENS), as the first interface to the central nervous system. Each microorganism can exert a different effect on the ENS, including phenotypical neuronal changes or the induction of chemical transmitters that interact with ENS neurons. Some pathogenic bacteria take advantage of the ENS to create a more suitable environment for their growth or to promote the effects of their toxins. In addition, some commensal bacteria can affect the central nervous system (CNS) by locally interacting with the ENS. From the current knowledge emerges an interesting field that may shape future concepts on the pathogen-host synergic interaction. The aim of this narrative review is to report the current findings regarding the inter-relationships between bacteria, viruses, and parasites and the ENS.