High protein load is a feature of multiple myeloma (MM), making the disease exquisitely sensitive to proteasome inhibitor (PIs). Despite the success of PIs in improving patient outcome, the majority of patients develop resistance leading to progressive disease; thus, the need to investigate the mechanisms driving the drug sensitivity vs resistance. With the well-recognized chaperone function of 14-3-3 proteins, we evaluated their role in affecting proteasome activity and sensitivity to PIs by correlating expression of individual 14-3-3 gene and their sensitivity to PIs (bortezomib and carfilzomib) across a large panel of MM cell lines. We observed a significant positive correlation between 14-3-3ϵ expression and PI response in addition to a role for 14-3-3ϵ in promoting translation initiation and protein synthesis in MM cells through binding and inhibition of the TSC1/TSC2 complex, as well as directly interacting with and promoting phosphorylation of mTORC1. 14-3-3ϵ depletion caused up to a 50% reduction in protein synthesis, including a decrease in the intracellular abundance and secretion of the light chains in MM cells, whereas 14-3-3ϵ overexpression or addback in knockout cells resulted in a marked upregulation of protein synthesis and protein load. Importantly, the correlation among 14-3-3ϵ expression, PI sensitivity, and protein load was observed in primary MM cells from 2 independent data sets, and its lower expression was associated with poor outcome in patients with MM receiving a bortezomib-based therapy. Altogether, these observations suggest that 14-3-3ϵ is a predictor of clinical outcome and may serve as a potential target to modulate PI sensitivity in MM.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology