Zofenopril and Ramipril in Combination with Acetyl Salicylic Acid in Postmyocardial Infarction Patients with Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction: A Retrospective Analysis of the SMILE-4 Randomized, Double-Blind Study in Diabetic Patients

Claudio Borghi, S. Omboni, Salvatore Novo, Dragos Vinereanu, G. A. Ambrosio, Ettore Ambrosioni, Alexopolulus Dimitrios, Nanas Ioannis, Agrusta Marco, Barsotti Antonio, Bergerone Serena, Caliendo Luigi, Caso Pio, Castello Antonio, Domenico Cianflone, Cipolla Tommaso, Gaetano De Ferrari, De Nittis Giuseppe, Dei Cas Livio, Di Pasquale PaoloEvola Rosario, Fattore Luciano, Ferrante Raffaele, Fiscella Antonio, Gaspardone Achille, Ielasi Giuseppe, Marchionni Niccoló, Marenzi Giancarlo, Marte Filippo, Miccoli Federico, Noussan Patrizia, Orlandi Mario, Piovaccari Giancarlo, Porcu Maurizio, Patrizia Presbitero, Raviele Antonio, Renaldini Emiliano, Salerno Uriarte Jorge, Storti Giovanni, Tamburino Corrado, Terrosu Pierfranco, Testa Roberto, Trinchero Rita, Tuccillo Bernardino, Vasquez Ludovico, Villani Giovanni Quinto, Alvés Mario Garcia, Andrade Aurora, Cardoso Silva, Moreira Joseà Ilidio, Arsenescu Georgescu Catalina, Cinteza Mircea, Dorobantu Maria, Ionescu Dominic, Manitiu Ioan, Ortan Florin, Pop Calin, Radoi Mariana, Alexandrovich Vasyuk Yuriy, Avenirovitch Kostenko Victor, Borisovich Karpov Yuriy, Iosifovna Tseluiko Vira, Lvovich Syrkin Abram, Mikhailovich Goloschekin Boris, Mikhaylovich Nifontov Evgeniy, Nikolaevich Tereschenko Sergey, Nikolaevna Burova Natalia, Nikolayevich Zrazhevsky Konstantin, Pavlovich Arutuynov Grigory, Sergeevich Moiseev Valentin, Victorovich Rudenko Leonid, Yurievich Vishnevsky Alexander, D. L Y De La Yera Diaz, Romero Fernández, Kirma Cevat, Meral Kayikcioglu, Oğuzhan Abdurrahman, Ural Komsuoglu Dilek, Ankindinovna Koval Olena, Nikolaevich Parkhomenko Alexan, Petrovich Vakalyuk Igor, Tihonovich Vatutin Mykola, Vladimirovich Batushkin Valerii

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: In the SMILE-4 study, zofenopril + acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) was more effective than ramipril + ASA on 1-year prevention of major cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular dysfunction. In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated drug efficacy in subgroups of patients, according to a history of diabetes mellitus. Methods: The primary study endpoint was 1-year combined occurrence of death or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. Diabetes was defined according to medical history (previous known diagnosis). Results: A total of 562 of 693 (81.0%) patients were classified as nondiabetics and 131 (18.9%) as diabetics. The adjusted rate of MACE was lower under zofenopril than under ramipril in both nondiabetics [27.9% vs. 34.9% ramipril; odds ratio, OR and 95% confidence interval: 0.55 (0.35, 0.86)] and diabetics [30.9% vs. 41.3%; 0.56 (0.18, 1.73)], although the difference was statistically significant only for the nondiabetic group (P = 0.013). Zofenopril was superior to ramipril as regards to the primary study endpoint in the subgroup of 157 patients with uncontrolled blood glucose (≥126 mg/dL), regardless of a previous diagnosis of diabetes [0.31 (0.10, 0.90), P = 0.030]. Zofenopril significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular causes in both nondiabetics [0.64 (0.43, 0.96), P = 0.030] and diabetics [0.38 (0.15, 0.95), P = 0.038], whereas it was not better than ramipril in terms of prevention of cardiovascular deaths. Conclusions: This retrospective analysis of the SMILE-4 study confirmed the good efficacy of zofenopril plus ASA in the prevention of long-term MACE also in the subgroup of patients with diabetes mellitus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)76-84
Number of pages9
JournalCardiovascular Therapeutics
Volume34
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2016

Fingerprint

zofenopril
Ramipril
Salicylic Acid
Left Ventricular Dysfunction
Double-Blind Method
Infarction
Diabetes Mellitus
Hospitalization
Blood Glucose
Odds Ratio
Myocardial Infarction
Confidence Intervals

Keywords

  • Acetyl salicylic acid
  • Acute myocardial infarction
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Left ventricular dysfunction
  • Ramipril
  • Zofenopril

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Zofenopril and Ramipril in Combination with Acetyl Salicylic Acid in Postmyocardial Infarction Patients with Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction : A Retrospective Analysis of the SMILE-4 Randomized, Double-Blind Study in Diabetic Patients. / Borghi, Claudio; Omboni, S.; Novo, Salvatore; Vinereanu, Dragos; Ambrosio, G. A.; Ambrosioni, Ettore; Dimitrios, Alexopolulus; Ioannis, Nanas; Marco, Agrusta; Antonio, Barsotti; Serena, Bergerone; Luigi, Caliendo; Pio, Caso; Antonio, Castello; Cianflone, Domenico; Tommaso, Cipolla; De Ferrari, Gaetano; Giuseppe, De Nittis; Livio, Dei Cas; Paolo, Di Pasquale; Rosario, Evola; Luciano, Fattore; Raffaele, Ferrante; Antonio, Fiscella; Achille, Gaspardone; Giuseppe, Ielasi; Niccoló, Marchionni; Giancarlo, Marenzi; Filippo, Marte; Federico, Miccoli; Patrizia, Noussan; Mario, Orlandi; Giancarlo, Piovaccari; Maurizio, Porcu; Presbitero, Patrizia; Antonio, Raviele; Emiliano, Renaldini; Jorge, Salerno Uriarte; Giovanni, Storti; Corrado, Tamburino; Pierfranco, Terrosu; Roberto, Testa; Rita, Trinchero; Bernardino, Tuccillo; Ludovico, Vasquez; Quinto, Villani Giovanni; Garcia, Alvés Mario; Aurora, Andrade; Silva, Cardoso; Ilidio, Moreira Joseà; Catalina, Arsenescu Georgescu; Mircea, Cinteza; Maria, Dorobantu; Dominic, Ionescu; Ioan, Manitiu; Florin, Ortan; Calin, Pop; Mariana, Radoi; Yuriy, Alexandrovich Vasyuk; Victor, Avenirovitch Kostenko; Yuriy, Borisovich Karpov; Vira, Iosifovna Tseluiko; Abram, Lvovich Syrkin; Boris, Mikhailovich Goloschekin; Evgeniy, Mikhaylovich Nifontov; Sergey, Nikolaevich Tereschenko; Natalia, Nikolaevna Burova; Konstantin, Nikolayevich Zrazhevsky; Grigory, Pavlovich Arutuynov; Valentin, Sergeevich Moiseev; Leonid, Victorovich Rudenko; Alexander, Yurievich Vishnevsky; Diaz, D. L Y De La Yera; Fernández, Romero; Cevat, Kirma; Kayikcioglu, Meral; Abdurrahman, Oğuzhan; Dilek, Ural Komsuoglu; Olena, Ankindinovna Koval; Alexan, Nikolaevich Parkhomenko; Igor, Petrovich Vakalyuk; Mykola, Tihonovich Vatutin; Valerii, Vladimirovich Batushkin.

In: Cardiovascular Therapeutics, Vol. 34, No. 2, 01.04.2016, p. 76-84.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Borghi, C, Omboni, S, Novo, S, Vinereanu, D, Ambrosio, GA, Ambrosioni, E, Dimitrios, A, Ioannis, N, Marco, A, Antonio, B, Serena, B, Luigi, C, Pio, C, Antonio, C, Cianflone, D, Tommaso, C, De Ferrari, G, Giuseppe, DN, Livio, DC, Paolo, DP, Rosario, E, Luciano, F, Raffaele, F, Antonio, F, Achille, G, Giuseppe, I, Niccoló, M, Giancarlo, M, Filippo, M, Federico, M, Patrizia, N, Mario, O, Giancarlo, P, Maurizio, P, Presbitero, P, Antonio, R, Emiliano, R, Jorge, SU, Giovanni, S, Corrado, T, Pierfranco, T, Roberto, T, Rita, T, Bernardino, T, Ludovico, V, Quinto, VG, Garcia, AM, Aurora, A, Silva, C, Ilidio, MJ, Catalina, AG, Mircea, C, Maria, D, Dominic, I, Ioan, M, Florin, O, Calin, P, Mariana, R, Yuriy, AV, Victor, AK, Yuriy, BK, Vira, IT, Abram, LS, Boris, MG, Evgeniy, MN, Sergey, NT, Natalia, NB, Konstantin, NZ, Grigory, PA, Valentin, SM, Leonid, VR, Alexander, YV, Diaz, DLYDLY, Fernández, R, Cevat, K, Kayikcioglu, M, Abdurrahman, O, Dilek, UK, Olena, AK, Alexan, NP, Igor, PV, Mykola, TV & Valerii, VB 2016, 'Zofenopril and Ramipril in Combination with Acetyl Salicylic Acid in Postmyocardial Infarction Patients with Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction: A Retrospective Analysis of the SMILE-4 Randomized, Double-Blind Study in Diabetic Patients', Cardiovascular Therapeutics, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 76-84. https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-5922.12175
Borghi, Claudio ; Omboni, S. ; Novo, Salvatore ; Vinereanu, Dragos ; Ambrosio, G. A. ; Ambrosioni, Ettore ; Dimitrios, Alexopolulus ; Ioannis, Nanas ; Marco, Agrusta ; Antonio, Barsotti ; Serena, Bergerone ; Luigi, Caliendo ; Pio, Caso ; Antonio, Castello ; Cianflone, Domenico ; Tommaso, Cipolla ; De Ferrari, Gaetano ; Giuseppe, De Nittis ; Livio, Dei Cas ; Paolo, Di Pasquale ; Rosario, Evola ; Luciano, Fattore ; Raffaele, Ferrante ; Antonio, Fiscella ; Achille, Gaspardone ; Giuseppe, Ielasi ; Niccoló, Marchionni ; Giancarlo, Marenzi ; Filippo, Marte ; Federico, Miccoli ; Patrizia, Noussan ; Mario, Orlandi ; Giancarlo, Piovaccari ; Maurizio, Porcu ; Presbitero, Patrizia ; Antonio, Raviele ; Emiliano, Renaldini ; Jorge, Salerno Uriarte ; Giovanni, Storti ; Corrado, Tamburino ; Pierfranco, Terrosu ; Roberto, Testa ; Rita, Trinchero ; Bernardino, Tuccillo ; Ludovico, Vasquez ; Quinto, Villani Giovanni ; Garcia, Alvés Mario ; Aurora, Andrade ; Silva, Cardoso ; Ilidio, Moreira Joseà ; Catalina, Arsenescu Georgescu ; Mircea, Cinteza ; Maria, Dorobantu ; Dominic, Ionescu ; Ioan, Manitiu ; Florin, Ortan ; Calin, Pop ; Mariana, Radoi ; Yuriy, Alexandrovich Vasyuk ; Victor, Avenirovitch Kostenko ; Yuriy, Borisovich Karpov ; Vira, Iosifovna Tseluiko ; Abram, Lvovich Syrkin ; Boris, Mikhailovich Goloschekin ; Evgeniy, Mikhaylovich Nifontov ; Sergey, Nikolaevich Tereschenko ; Natalia, Nikolaevna Burova ; Konstantin, Nikolayevich Zrazhevsky ; Grigory, Pavlovich Arutuynov ; Valentin, Sergeevich Moiseev ; Leonid, Victorovich Rudenko ; Alexander, Yurievich Vishnevsky ; Diaz, D. L Y De La Yera ; Fernández, Romero ; Cevat, Kirma ; Kayikcioglu, Meral ; Abdurrahman, Oğuzhan ; Dilek, Ural Komsuoglu ; Olena, Ankindinovna Koval ; Alexan, Nikolaevich Parkhomenko ; Igor, Petrovich Vakalyuk ; Mykola, Tihonovich Vatutin ; Valerii, Vladimirovich Batushkin. / Zofenopril and Ramipril in Combination with Acetyl Salicylic Acid in Postmyocardial Infarction Patients with Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction : A Retrospective Analysis of the SMILE-4 Randomized, Double-Blind Study in Diabetic Patients. In: Cardiovascular Therapeutics. 2016 ; Vol. 34, No. 2. pp. 76-84.
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title = "Zofenopril and Ramipril in Combination with Acetyl Salicylic Acid in Postmyocardial Infarction Patients with Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction: A Retrospective Analysis of the SMILE-4 Randomized, Double-Blind Study in Diabetic Patients",
abstract = "Objective: In the SMILE-4 study, zofenopril + acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) was more effective than ramipril + ASA on 1-year prevention of major cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular dysfunction. In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated drug efficacy in subgroups of patients, according to a history of diabetes mellitus. Methods: The primary study endpoint was 1-year combined occurrence of death or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. Diabetes was defined according to medical history (previous known diagnosis). Results: A total of 562 of 693 (81.0{\%}) patients were classified as nondiabetics and 131 (18.9{\%}) as diabetics. The adjusted rate of MACE was lower under zofenopril than under ramipril in both nondiabetics [27.9{\%} vs. 34.9{\%} ramipril; odds ratio, OR and 95{\%} confidence interval: 0.55 (0.35, 0.86)] and diabetics [30.9{\%} vs. 41.3{\%}; 0.56 (0.18, 1.73)], although the difference was statistically significant only for the nondiabetic group (P = 0.013). Zofenopril was superior to ramipril as regards to the primary study endpoint in the subgroup of 157 patients with uncontrolled blood glucose (≥126 mg/dL), regardless of a previous diagnosis of diabetes [0.31 (0.10, 0.90), P = 0.030]. Zofenopril significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular causes in both nondiabetics [0.64 (0.43, 0.96), P = 0.030] and diabetics [0.38 (0.15, 0.95), P = 0.038], whereas it was not better than ramipril in terms of prevention of cardiovascular deaths. Conclusions: This retrospective analysis of the SMILE-4 study confirmed the good efficacy of zofenopril plus ASA in the prevention of long-term MACE also in the subgroup of patients with diabetes mellitus.",
keywords = "Acetyl salicylic acid, Acute myocardial infarction, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, Diabetes mellitus, Left ventricular dysfunction, Ramipril, Zofenopril",
author = "Claudio Borghi and S. Omboni and Salvatore Novo and Dragos Vinereanu and Ambrosio, {G. A.} and Ettore Ambrosioni and Alexopolulus Dimitrios and Nanas Ioannis and Agrusta Marco and Barsotti Antonio and Bergerone Serena and Caliendo Luigi and Caso Pio and Castello Antonio and Domenico Cianflone and Cipolla Tommaso and {De Ferrari}, Gaetano and Giuseppe, {De Nittis} and Livio, {Dei Cas} and Paolo, {Di Pasquale} and Evola Rosario and Fattore Luciano and Ferrante Raffaele and Fiscella Antonio and Gaspardone Achille and Ielasi Giuseppe and Marchionni Niccol{\'o} and Marenzi Giancarlo and Marte Filippo and Miccoli Federico and Noussan Patrizia and Orlandi Mario and Piovaccari Giancarlo and Porcu Maurizio and Patrizia Presbitero and Raviele Antonio and Renaldini Emiliano and Jorge, {Salerno Uriarte} and Storti Giovanni and Tamburino Corrado and Terrosu Pierfranco and Testa Roberto and Trinchero Rita and Tuccillo Bernardino and Vasquez Ludovico and Quinto, {Villani Giovanni} and Garcia, {Alv{\'e}s Mario} and Andrade Aurora and Cardoso Silva and Ilidio, {Moreira Jose{\`a}} and Catalina, {Arsenescu Georgescu} and Cinteza Mircea and Dorobantu Maria and Ionescu Dominic and Manitiu Ioan and Ortan Florin and Pop Calin and Radoi Mariana and Yuriy, {Alexandrovich Vasyuk} and Victor, {Avenirovitch Kostenko} and Yuriy, {Borisovich Karpov} and Vira, {Iosifovna Tseluiko} and Abram, {Lvovich Syrkin} and Boris, {Mikhailovich Goloschekin} and Evgeniy, {Mikhaylovich Nifontov} and Sergey, {Nikolaevich Tereschenko} and Natalia, {Nikolaevna Burova} and Konstantin, {Nikolayevich Zrazhevsky} and Grigory, {Pavlovich Arutuynov} and Valentin, {Sergeevich Moiseev} and Leonid, {Victorovich Rudenko} and Alexander, {Yurievich Vishnevsky} and Diaz, {D. L Y De La Yera} and Romero Fern{\'a}ndez and Kirma Cevat and Meral Kayikcioglu and Oğuzhan Abdurrahman and Dilek, {Ural Komsuoglu} and Olena, {Ankindinovna Koval} and Alexan, {Nikolaevich Parkhomenko} and Igor, {Petrovich Vakalyuk} and Mykola, {Tihonovich Vatutin} and Valerii, {Vladimirovich Batushkin}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Zofenopril and Ramipril in Combination with Acetyl Salicylic Acid in Postmyocardial Infarction Patients with Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction

T2 - A Retrospective Analysis of the SMILE-4 Randomized, Double-Blind Study in Diabetic Patients

AU - Borghi, Claudio

AU - Omboni, S.

AU - Novo, Salvatore

AU - Vinereanu, Dragos

AU - Ambrosio, G. A.

AU - Ambrosioni, Ettore

AU - Dimitrios, Alexopolulus

AU - Ioannis, Nanas

AU - Marco, Agrusta

AU - Antonio, Barsotti

AU - Serena, Bergerone

AU - Luigi, Caliendo

AU - Pio, Caso

AU - Antonio, Castello

AU - Cianflone, Domenico

AU - Tommaso, Cipolla

AU - De Ferrari, Gaetano

AU - Giuseppe, De Nittis

AU - Livio, Dei Cas

AU - Paolo, Di Pasquale

AU - Rosario, Evola

AU - Luciano, Fattore

AU - Raffaele, Ferrante

AU - Antonio, Fiscella

AU - Achille, Gaspardone

AU - Giuseppe, Ielasi

AU - Niccoló, Marchionni

AU - Giancarlo, Marenzi

AU - Filippo, Marte

AU - Federico, Miccoli

AU - Patrizia, Noussan

AU - Mario, Orlandi

AU - Giancarlo, Piovaccari

AU - Maurizio, Porcu

AU - Presbitero, Patrizia

AU - Antonio, Raviele

AU - Emiliano, Renaldini

AU - Jorge, Salerno Uriarte

AU - Giovanni, Storti

AU - Corrado, Tamburino

AU - Pierfranco, Terrosu

AU - Roberto, Testa

AU - Rita, Trinchero

AU - Bernardino, Tuccillo

AU - Ludovico, Vasquez

AU - Quinto, Villani Giovanni

AU - Garcia, Alvés Mario

AU - Aurora, Andrade

AU - Silva, Cardoso

AU - Ilidio, Moreira Joseà

AU - Catalina, Arsenescu Georgescu

AU - Mircea, Cinteza

AU - Maria, Dorobantu

AU - Dominic, Ionescu

AU - Ioan, Manitiu

AU - Florin, Ortan

AU - Calin, Pop

AU - Mariana, Radoi

AU - Yuriy, Alexandrovich Vasyuk

AU - Victor, Avenirovitch Kostenko

AU - Yuriy, Borisovich Karpov

AU - Vira, Iosifovna Tseluiko

AU - Abram, Lvovich Syrkin

AU - Boris, Mikhailovich Goloschekin

AU - Evgeniy, Mikhaylovich Nifontov

AU - Sergey, Nikolaevich Tereschenko

AU - Natalia, Nikolaevna Burova

AU - Konstantin, Nikolayevich Zrazhevsky

AU - Grigory, Pavlovich Arutuynov

AU - Valentin, Sergeevich Moiseev

AU - Leonid, Victorovich Rudenko

AU - Alexander, Yurievich Vishnevsky

AU - Diaz, D. L Y De La Yera

AU - Fernández, Romero

AU - Cevat, Kirma

AU - Kayikcioglu, Meral

AU - Abdurrahman, Oğuzhan

AU - Dilek, Ural Komsuoglu

AU - Olena, Ankindinovna Koval

AU - Alexan, Nikolaevich Parkhomenko

AU - Igor, Petrovich Vakalyuk

AU - Mykola, Tihonovich Vatutin

AU - Valerii, Vladimirovich Batushkin

PY - 2016/4/1

Y1 - 2016/4/1

N2 - Objective: In the SMILE-4 study, zofenopril + acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) was more effective than ramipril + ASA on 1-year prevention of major cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular dysfunction. In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated drug efficacy in subgroups of patients, according to a history of diabetes mellitus. Methods: The primary study endpoint was 1-year combined occurrence of death or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. Diabetes was defined according to medical history (previous known diagnosis). Results: A total of 562 of 693 (81.0%) patients were classified as nondiabetics and 131 (18.9%) as diabetics. The adjusted rate of MACE was lower under zofenopril than under ramipril in both nondiabetics [27.9% vs. 34.9% ramipril; odds ratio, OR and 95% confidence interval: 0.55 (0.35, 0.86)] and diabetics [30.9% vs. 41.3%; 0.56 (0.18, 1.73)], although the difference was statistically significant only for the nondiabetic group (P = 0.013). Zofenopril was superior to ramipril as regards to the primary study endpoint in the subgroup of 157 patients with uncontrolled blood glucose (≥126 mg/dL), regardless of a previous diagnosis of diabetes [0.31 (0.10, 0.90), P = 0.030]. Zofenopril significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular causes in both nondiabetics [0.64 (0.43, 0.96), P = 0.030] and diabetics [0.38 (0.15, 0.95), P = 0.038], whereas it was not better than ramipril in terms of prevention of cardiovascular deaths. Conclusions: This retrospective analysis of the SMILE-4 study confirmed the good efficacy of zofenopril plus ASA in the prevention of long-term MACE also in the subgroup of patients with diabetes mellitus.

AB - Objective: In the SMILE-4 study, zofenopril + acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) was more effective than ramipril + ASA on 1-year prevention of major cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular dysfunction. In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated drug efficacy in subgroups of patients, according to a history of diabetes mellitus. Methods: The primary study endpoint was 1-year combined occurrence of death or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. Diabetes was defined according to medical history (previous known diagnosis). Results: A total of 562 of 693 (81.0%) patients were classified as nondiabetics and 131 (18.9%) as diabetics. The adjusted rate of MACE was lower under zofenopril than under ramipril in both nondiabetics [27.9% vs. 34.9% ramipril; odds ratio, OR and 95% confidence interval: 0.55 (0.35, 0.86)] and diabetics [30.9% vs. 41.3%; 0.56 (0.18, 1.73)], although the difference was statistically significant only for the nondiabetic group (P = 0.013). Zofenopril was superior to ramipril as regards to the primary study endpoint in the subgroup of 157 patients with uncontrolled blood glucose (≥126 mg/dL), regardless of a previous diagnosis of diabetes [0.31 (0.10, 0.90), P = 0.030]. Zofenopril significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular causes in both nondiabetics [0.64 (0.43, 0.96), P = 0.030] and diabetics [0.38 (0.15, 0.95), P = 0.038], whereas it was not better than ramipril in terms of prevention of cardiovascular deaths. Conclusions: This retrospective analysis of the SMILE-4 study confirmed the good efficacy of zofenopril plus ASA in the prevention of long-term MACE also in the subgroup of patients with diabetes mellitus.

KW - Acetyl salicylic acid

KW - Acute myocardial infarction

KW - Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

KW - Diabetes mellitus

KW - Left ventricular dysfunction

KW - Ramipril

KW - Zofenopril

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U2 - 10.1111/1755-5922.12175

DO - 10.1111/1755-5922.12175

M3 - Article

VL - 34

SP - 76

EP - 84

JO - Cardiovascular Therapeutics

JF - Cardiovascular Therapeutics

SN - 1755-5914

IS - 2

ER -